September 13: in the Chicago suburb of Bridgeview,
police guard a mosque which had been the target
of anti-Muslim demonstrations the evening before.


==At the request of the Queen, ‘The Star Spangled Banner’ is played instead of ‘God Save the Queen’ during the changing of the guard ceremony at Buckingham palace, followed by a two minute silence.  A crowd of thousands watches the event - mostly Americans who are stranded in London.  Many of the spectators break down and weep.      [tele.Sep.14.2001 / bbc.Sep.13.2001]
==In contrast, on the live BBC current events program ‘Question Time,’ the shocked US ambassador is shouted down by angry members of the studio audience who blame American foreign policy for the 9/11 attacks.  More than 2000 viewers call to complain, and the BBC soon apologizes for the incident.      [bbc.Sep.15.2001]

==In Austria, 10,000 church bells are rung to signal a three-minute silence for the victims of 9/11.  In Germany and Russia, television and radio broadcasts are halted during brief memorial silences, and silences are observed in other European nations as well.  Tens of thousands of ethnic Albanians take part in a memorial march in the town of Pristina in Kosovo.      [bbc.Sep.13.2001 / ap.Sep.13.2001 / wat.Sep.14.2001]

==Russia and NATO issue a rare joint declaration, condemning the terrorist attacks on the US and pledging “intensified cooperation” against terrorism.      [bbc.Sep.13.2001 / usdos.Dec.26.2001] 

==European leaders continue to be wary of the Bush administration’s growing belligerence.  French Prime Minister Jospin warns “we must not allow ourselves to be led into considerations of a conflict between the western world and the Islamic world,” while senior officials in France and Germany refuse to characterize the situation as a war.      [tele.Sep.14.2001]

Middle East:
==The New York Times reports that in the Islamic world the general consensus is that the undeviating US support of Israel and of autocratic Arab regimes will inspire more anti-American terrorism in the future.  Many Muslims doubt that the US will reexamine its Middle Eastern policies anytime soon.      [nyt.Sep.14.2001]

==Israeli Prime Minister Sharon compares Arafat with Osama Bin Laden.      [gdn.Sep.14.2001]
==The Arab League Council issues a communiqué deploring Israel’s exploitation of the aftermath of 9/11.      [arabl.Sep.13.2001]

==Palestinian leaders are frantically trying to undo the public relations damage caused by Tuesday’s news footage of some residents of Nablus celebrating the news of 9/11.  Most Palestinians seem to be ambivalent about the attacks - they are too embittered by US support of Israel to feel deep sympathy for America, but are too appalled by the slaughter of innocent civilians to feel like cheering.  Many assume that the aftermath of September 11 will make a bad state of affairs even worse.  “We still do not know what kind of effect this will have. An event like this can transform the whole situation.  But I believe we, the Palestinians, will be the main losers,” says one observer. Another glumly predicts “We will be thrown in with America's enemies.”      [wap.Sep.14.2001 / gdn.Sep.13.2001]

==Turkish Foreign Minister Cem pledges to assist the US in tracking down terrorists, but warns the Bush administration not to turn the situation into a “fight between two religions and different cultures… It would be the utmost disrespect to all religions to identify any religion with terrorism. There is no Muslim, Christian or Jewish terrorism.”      [afp.Sep.14.2001]

Persian Gulf:
==It is reported that the departing carrier USS Enterprise has been ordered to remain in the Persian Gulf area.  Along with the USS Carl Vinson, this gives the US Navy twice its usual strength in the region.      [wap.Sep.13.2001]

==Turkish military sources report a major American military buildup is underway at Incirlik Air Base in south-central Turkey, evidently directed against Iraq.      [cnn.Sep.13.2001]
==Iraq is moving military equipment, probably as a precaution against a possible US attack.      [wap.Sep.14.2001]

==Several dozen Iranians hold a candlelight vigil for the victims of 9/11 in a public square in Tehran, ignoring police orders to disperse.      [ap.Sep.13.2001]

Afghanistan/South Asia:
==Al-Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan are reported to be virtually empty.      [wap.Sep.14.2001]

==The US is demanding that Pakistan cut fuel supplies to the Taliban, seal its border with Afghanistan, share any information it has on bin Laden, block any activities or movements of al-Qaeda members, and allow US overflights.  It’s clear that Pakistan will face dire consequences if it doesn’t comply.  Pakistani President Musharraf still avoids making concrete commitments, but he pledges to cooperate with the US in a morning meeting with the American ambassador and promises to review US demands in a cordial afternoon phone conversation with Colin Powell.  Many Pakistani officers and officials are not enthusiastic about aligning with America against Afghanistan - some are Islamists who sympathize with the Taliban, while others are afraid of provoking violent internal unrest within Pakistan.      [cnn.Sep.13.2001 / sal.Sep.13.2001 / wap.Sep.14.2001]

==India offers full operational backing for any US military attack in retaliation for 9/11.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]

==Nearly a thousand prostitutes march to the American Center in Calcutta, sign a petition condemning the 9/11 attacks, and offer to donate blood to the victims.      [wat.Sep.14.2001]

East Asia:
==The two Chinese army officers who wrote ‘Unrestricted Warfare’ - a book examining the use of terrorist tactics against America in the event of war - tell a Hong Kong newspaper that the people killed on September 11 were to some extent “victims of US foreign policy,” and that the attacks were “very likely is the beginning of the decline of the United States, as a superpower.”  But around this time other Chinese intellectuals condemn such anti-American sentiment as having “taken joy from suffering,”  The Chinese government itself cracks down on anti-Americanism, banning anti-US postings on the Internet.      [amfpc.Sep.25.2001 / nyt.Sep.16.2001 / asti.Sep.19.2001]
==In a telephone conversation with Powell, Chinese Vice Premier Qian promises to “enhance cooperation” in tracking down terrorists.  China will soon begin to claim that it’s harsh attempts to suppress an Islamic separatist movement in Xinjiang are part of the international war on terrorism.      [asti.Sep.19.2001 / reu.Jan.30.2002]


==After meandering top-level discussions on Wednesday and Thursday, a compromise concensus is reached to first attack al-Qaeda and the Taliban, but to later broaden the war on terrorism to include other targets - presumably Iraq.      [clarke]
==In a brief White House press conference, Bush says the attacks are part of “the first war of the 21st Century,” that terrorism “is now the focus of my presidency,” and that “we will lead the world to victory.”     [wap.Sep.13.2001]
==During a news conference, Secretary of State Powell says “I am speaking about war. The president is speaking about war…”  Powell says the US will rip up the network of terrorists responsible for the 9/11 attacks, as well as those who support them - “And when we are through with that network, we will continue with a global assault against terrorism in general.”  He calls Saddam Hussein “one of the leading terrorists on the face of the Earth.”      [wap.Sep.13.2001]
==Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld says that any future US military operations against those involved in the 9/11 attacks would be “self-defense,” not retaliation.      [cnn.Sep.13.2001]

==Ultra-hawkish Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz begins publicly - if indirectly - pushing for the overthrow of Saddam’s regime.  He says that America must engage in a “broad and sustained campaign” using “the full resources of the U.S. government,” and ominously speaks of “ending states who sponsor terrorism.”  This last comment alarms more moderate officials.  Colin Powell opposes any adventures in Iraq at this point, and during a press conference four days later he openly rebukes Wolfowitz: “We're after ending terrorism. And if there are states and regimes, nations that support terrorism, we hope to persuade them that it is in their interest to stop doing that. But I think ending terrorism is where I would like to leave it, and let Mr. Wolfowitz speak for himself.”  According to Bob Woodward, after an early war cabinet meeting at which Rumsfeld had talked of attacking Iraq, the exasperated Powell approaches General Shelton, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and asks “What the hell, what are these guys thinking about? Can't you get these guys back in the box?"      [wap.Sep.14.2001 / lat.Sep.21.2001 / pbs.Feb.20.2003 / wap.Jan.29.2002]
==Responding to Bush’s requests of the evening before, one of Clarke’s aides chairs a meeting of federal departments and agencies to once again look for a link between Iraq and al-Qaeda. Conference members unanimously conclude that there is no cooperation between the two. The conference sends a memo to the president, “but there was never any indication that it reached him.”      [clarke]
==US military planners are ordered to draw up scenarios for an attack on Iraq, as well as on Afghanistan.      [atl.Jan.2004]

==On Thursday morning, CIA leaders confer with Bush and outline their plans for launching operations in Afghanistan to crush the Taliban and al-Qaeda.  “They'll have flies on their eyeballs” enthuses the CIA's counterterrorist head Cofer Black, evoking images of corpses rotting in the desert.  It’s also reported that the US military is studying a range of options for retaliating against the Taliban, including massive bombing and large-scale ground operations.      [wap.Sep.13.2001+Jan.29.2002 / susk2]
==Former US Air Force Chief of Staff McPeak comments on the likely effectiveness of US air strikes in Afghanistan: “If you just want to level Kabul - that's a fixed target - we can do that, it's not that hard to do,” but hitting a mobile target like bin Laden will be far more difficult.      [wap.Sep.13.2001]

==The Bush administration is raising objections to being restrained by the 1973 War Powers Act, which requires the President to consult with Congress in making decisions that could lead to hostilities.      [spi.Sep.13.2001]
==Senator McCain calls for a commitment to all-out war, including the use of ground troops… possibly to the discomfort of the administration.  Georgia Congressman Bob Barr’s proposal to formally declare war on terrorism gains little support.  His fellow Republican, John Warner of Pennsylvania, says “It would be beneath our dignity to have a declaration of war against Bin Laden.”      [obs.Sep.16.2001 / lat.Sep.14.2001]
==Governors in 31 states have called up about 10,000 National Guardsmen.       [cnn.Sep.13.2001]

==A spokesman for the Army Recruiting Command says that so far the 9/11 attacks have had “minimal impact” on the numbers of people volunteering for the military. The Army's online recruiter chat room is packed and inquiries on how to join the armed forces have increased, but many of the queries are from veterans who are too old to re-enlist. An observer comments on the disparity between the jingoism sweeping the nation and the lack of interest in actually enlisting: "Flag-waving is not patriotism."      [nyt.Sep.14+Sep.16.2001]

==The Senate Armed Services Committee grills General Richard Myers, in line to become chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, on why jet fighters were so slow to deploy over Washington on the morning of September 11.      [wap.Sep.14.2001]


==Secretary of State Powell publicly names Bin Laden as the prime suspect for the 9/11 attacks.      [nyt.Sep.13.2001]
==There are reports that White House and Justice Department lawyers are doing research to determine whether the president has the authority to order assassinations.       [wap.Sep.13.2001]
==In a meeting with the president on Thursday afternoon, George Tenet proposes that the CIA's powers be greatly expanded. Bush readily agrees.      [susk2]

==Gary Schroen, a former CIA station chief in Kabul and Islamabad, is ordered to return to Afghanistan to liaise with the anti-Taliban opposition and to eliminate senior members of al-Qaeda. CIA counter-terrorism chief Cofer Black tells Schroen to "Capture Bin Laden, kill him and bring his head back in a box on dry ice," and to impale the severed heads of other al-Qaeda leaders "up on pikes." In 30 years in the CIA, this is the first time Schroen has been ordered to kill rather than capture a target.  See Afghanistan, Sep.18      [bbc.May.04.2005]

==Federal investigators have identified 18 of the hijackers.      [nyt.Sep.14.2001] 
==There are ominous false reports that there were up to fifty al-Qaeda infiltrators in America who supported or carried out the 9/11 attacks, including ten who are still at large.  Senate Foreign Relations Committee Chairman Biden alludes to the possible existence of “a second team” of al-Qaeda operatives planning further attacks in the US.      [lat.Sep.13.2001 / abc.Sep.13.2001]

==The Transportation Department is planning to resume putting armed sky marshals on flights, after neglecting the program for years.     [wap.Sep.13.2001]
==There are growing calls for the reform and federalization of US airport security.  Screening employees are paid less than janitors and have an annual turnover rate of 126% at major airports.  The GAO reports that 90% of them have less than six months experience.      [wap.Sep.13.2001]
==In Phoenix, three Northwest Airlines employees intentionally - and easily - breach security at the newly reopened airport.  Nervous officials evacuate the terminal when they learn of the incident.      [ap.Sep.13.2001]

==In late afternoon and early evening, thirteen terror suspects are arrested at JFK and La Guardia airports near New York City.  The arrestees are described in the press as two new suicide hijacking teams, and were reportedly carrying knives, fake id’s, one way tickets dated September 11, and certificates from the same Florida flight training schools that the 9/11 hijackers attended.  One suspect was found to have a pilot’s license.  Jittery authorities promptly once again shut down the newly reopened New York area airports, and remove all trash cans from the terminals for fear of bombs.  But the story turns out to be a false alarm: none of the suspects have any connection with terrorism, most of the reported details prove to be false, and the man with a pilot’s license really is a pilot.  An eyewitness describes the search of a plane at JFK by overzealous law enforcement officers “Anyone with dark skin or who spoke with an accent was taken aside and searched.  And then they went to any male with too much facial hair.”      [wap.Sep.14+Sep.15.2001 / nyt.Sep.14.2001]

==It is determined that two of the 9/11 suicide pilots studied at Hamburg-Harburg Technical University in Germany.  The school’s president hears the news while he is shaving that morning and later says “I nearly dropped my razor.”      [inside]
==Italian police are taking a renewed interest in a burglary that occurred in Rome on April.06, in which American Airlines uniforms, identification, and card keys were stolen from hotel rooms.      [cnn.Sep.13.2001]
==A manhunt is underway in Thailand for 15 Arabs believed to be linked to al-Qaeda.       [bbc.Sep.13.2001]
==Two men are arrested in Malaysia for threatening the US embassy.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]

==Although private flights are still strictly prohibited in the US, specially authorized charter flights begin collecting almost 140 well-connected Saudis from throughout America and evacuating them overseas, usually to Europe, in an operation that continues until late September.  The passengers on one charter that departs the US on Sep.20 are mostly relatives of Osama bin Laden.  The flights are evidently authorized by Richard Clarke, although it’s not clear who in the administration first proposed them. The FBI has denied reports that it was prevented from adequately interrogating the Saudis before they left.      [sal.Mar.11.2004 / hill.May.26.2004] 

==For weeks, a young Iranian who’s been imprisoned in Hanover while awaiting deportation has been desperately trying to contact the White House and the Secret Service with critical information about an imminent threat to the current world order.  Until 9/11 he was assumed to be deranged, but after the attacks his warnings attract more interest.  On this date he is interviewed by FBI and German federal police agents - who quickly determine that he really is deranged.  In the immediate aftermath of 9/11, overworked police around the world are investigating countless crackpots and fringe groups.      [inside]

9/11 Aftermath:

==New York Mayor Giuliani says that 4,763 people are missing at the World Trade Center, and announces that 30,000 body bags are available to hold human fragments.     [wap.Sep.13.2001 / sal.Sep.13.2001]

==Firefighters who’ve completed their 24-hour shifts at the World Trade Center refuse orders to go home. On Friday, one firefighter is quoted as saying “We know there are people alive. We just can't get to them.  There's got to be people.”      [pbs.Sep.09.2002 / nyt.Sep.14.2001]
==In the early afternoon, false reports circulate that several trapped firefighters have been rescued from a SUV after two days of being buried under the rubble at the WTC. In some versions of the rumor, the freed survivors are in such good shape that they immediately pick up tools and join the rescue workers.  Late Thursday night at St. Vincent’s Hospital in New York, a young woman wearing surgical scrubs and claiming to be a nurse tells a policeman that she’s been receiving cell phone calls from her husband, who’s trapped with ten other police officers under the wreckage of the North Tower.  The report electrifies the exhausted rescue workers, but the story soon unravels.  On Friday morning the hoaxer is arrested on charges that include reckless endangerment, and in January 2002 she’s convicted and sentenced to three years in prison.  There are still other false reports of someone trapped in a basement sending e-mails via his wireless organizer. In fact, no one was rescued alive from Ground Zero after Wednesday.      [wap.Sep.14.2001 / nyt.Sep.13+Sep.14+Sep.15.2001 / irex.Jan.24.2002]
==There are false reports that rescuers have recovered the bodies of one of the hijackers and of a flight attendant with her hands tied behind her back.      [bbc.Sep.13.2001]

==About this time, at the damaged St. Charlie’s restaurant a couple blocks south of Ground Zero, a crowd of tired volunteers is helping itself to free drinks when a rescue worker “put his fingers in his mouth and whistled, loudly. "A moment of silence!" he demanded, and the clamor stopped.  "And let some spill for those no longer with us," he added after a moment, and all across the room splatters of beer hit the ash-covered floor.”      [nyt.Sep.16.2001]

==Reuters reports that almost 12 tons of gold, worth about $106 million, was stored in an underground warehouse that is now buried under the rubble of the World Trade Center.      [reu.Sep.13.2001]

==A World Trade Center survivors’ page is set up on the website, allowing WTC workers who are still alive to post their names in order to reassure their friends and families.      [dmu.Sep.13.2001]
==Outside of lower Manhattan, most New York City schools reopen.  School officials feared that there would be anti-Muslim incidents, but none occur.      [nwd.Sep.14.2001]
==Bill Clinton becomes the first American president to visit New York City after 9/11.  Just after arriving back in the country from Australia, he takes an unannounced walk through lower Manhattan in the afternoon, informally interacting with the local residents and passersby who crowd around him.      [sal.Sep.14.2001]
==There are 90 bomb threats in New York during the late morning and early afternoon.  Grand Central Station, Macy’s, La Guardia, the Port Authority Bus Terminal and many other buildings are evacuated.  Many of the thousands of evacuees milling about on the street are clearly stressed out from several days of high tension.      [nyt.Sep.14.2001]

==Military police guard nearly every downtown corner in Washington while fighter planes fly overhead.  Local officials say the city will remain in a state of emergency indefinitely.  A legal secretary trying to get to her office comments “…I don’t feel like this is America.”      [ap.Sep.13.2001]
==The capital remains jittery.  Around noon, the CIA warns that al-Qaeda may be planning to directly assault the White House.  This unlikely report is taken seriously and the armed cordon around the White House is expanded, creating traffic gridlock.  Late afternoon, in the middle of a Senate vote, the Capitol is evacuated for an hour due to a bomb scare. The Lincoln Memorial and other monuments on the mall are closed, newly reopened Dulles Airport is shut down, and throughout the day many other buildings in the capital are suddenly ordered evacuated without explanation.  Major bomb scares and building evacuations occur in Miami, San Francisco, Wilmington, and other cities.      [wap.Sep.14.2001+Jan.29.2002 / cnn.Sep.14.2001 / ap.Sep.13.2001 / nyt.Sep.14.2001]

==Rescue workers at the Pentagon are acting on the assumption “that there is no savable life in there,” as one fire chief puts it.      [wap.Sep.13.2001]

==One of Flight 93’s black boxes - the data recorder - is retrieved at the crash site in Pennsylvania.      [cnn.Sep.13.2001]

==Combat air patrols over most metropolitan areas are halted, outside of the New York-Washington corridor.      [cnn.Sep.13.2001]

==Commercial air flights are allowed to resume in the US beginning at 1100 AM.  Most major airports reopen, though Reagan National near Washington remains closed indefinitely.  By 430 PM, the FAA estimates that there are about 250 US commercial flights in the air; normally there would be thousands.  Apprehensive passengers must contend with jittery security, long delays, and scheduling chaos - and the confusion is compounded when the FAA bans all incoming flights by foreign carriers.  Around early evening, New York airports are again shut down in response to arrests of suspected terrorists (see Counterterrorism).  While a National Airlines flight is preparing to depart from San Francisco, a passenger is overheard joking to a friend “This one's headed for the White House, right?” - the plane is returned to the gate and the two men are removed and questioned.  In one of the first Continental flights out of Los Angeles after 9/11 - a red-eye to the East Coast - the men in one section take turns sleeping, so that at least one of them would always be on guard duty.      [cnn.Sep.13.2001 / wap.Sep.13+Sep.14.2001 / faa.Sep.13.2001 / nyt.Sep.14.2001 / frmtt.Sep.19.2001 / csm.Sep.17.2001]

==A tripled demand for bus tickets forced Greyhound to stop selling tickets in Chicago Thursday night. Thanks to the commercial aviation shutdown, Greyhound has been running at full capacity.      [cnn.Sep.14.2001]

==Due to greatly tightened security, vehicles are forced to wait up to 15 hours at some US-Canadian border crossings.       [cnn.Sep.13.2001]

==In Britain, the Guardian publishes a letter to the editor in which a reader asks: “In the past few weeks we have been warned about tidal waves and asteroids ending civilization. Why, when we can do it for ourselves?”      [gdn.Sep.13.2001]

The Administration:

==Bush’s limp public response to the disaster so far continues to draw criticism.  Political commentator Mickey Kaus writes that Bush seems to be incapable of coming across as a dynamic leader, and probably should give up trying to do so.  USA Today notes that even many Republicans feel that his speeches since 9/11 have been inadequate.  After watching the president’s Thursday broadcasts, Los Angeles Times television critic Howard Rosenberg writes “Bush has lacked size in front of the camera.”  He has yet to appear in stricken New York City, and Newsday columnist Ellis Henican asks “Where's Bush?… New York has a right to know.”  But even though his leadership has not been inspiring, Bush is benefiting from a rally-round-the-president reaction in the wake of 9/11, and his approval rating is already sharply rising - see Public Mood and Opinion      [slate.Sep.13.2001 / ust.Sep.13.2001 / lat.Sep.14.2001 / nwd.Sep.13.2001]

==Late in the morning, Bush invites reporters into the Oval Office to listen while he has a phone conference with Mayor Giuliani and Governor Pataki.  Bush then holds a rare impromptu press conference, briefly and emotionally answering a half-dozen questions. See War/Military      [nyt.Sep.16.2001 / cnn.Sep.13.2001]

==In the afternoon, Bush meets with a number of Congressmen from the states hardest hit by the 9/11 attacks.  Senator Schumer of New York points out that New York will need at least another $20 billion to rebuild, and Bush immediately responds “You've got it.  I'll agree to that.”  In his earlier phone conference with Giuliani and Pataki, the president had pledged “anything - anything it takes to help New York.”  It’s generally assumed that half of the $40 billion emergency appropriation passed by Congress will go to New York, but a couple months later the administration slashes much of the aid from its budget, leaving New York with only $11 billion of the $20 billion it was promised.      [wap.Jan.29.2002 / cnn.Sep.13.2001 / slate.Feb.05.2002 / nyt.Nov.21.2001]

==After the early afternoon White House attack scare (see 9/11 Aftermath), Vice President Cheney is moved to Camp David full time, beginning his journey into the realm of undisclosed locations.      [wap.Jan.29.2002]


Congress willingly reaches a bipartisan agreement to double the $20 billion the Bush administration has requested to pay for recovery from the 9/11 attacks, but work on the bill temporarily stalls over the White House’s insistence on unfettered control of the money. See Sep.14      [cnn.Sep.14.2001]
==Congress declares that the police and firefighters who were killed on 9/11 are war casualties, which allows the federal government to grant funds to their families.  Legislators also pass a resolution urging all Americans to fly the national flag.      [cnn.Sep.14.2001]

==At least for the time being, congressional opposition to the administration’s missile defense plan has collapsed. Under heavy pressure to maintain a bipartisan front, Democrats are reluctant to oppose the plan, even though they feel that an antimissile system would be irrelevant against terrorist attacks.      [nyt.Sep.14.2001]

==In one of the first instances of a leading politician using the 9/11 crisis to advance partisan legislation, House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Bill Thomas pushes capital gains tax cuts and tax breaks for businesses.  Thomas is later persuaded to back off.      [lat.Sep.14.2001]


==Violent pro-war commentary continues to appear in the press and on television:
==Far-right columnist Ann Coulter writes of Muslims: “We should invade their countries, kill their leaders and convert them to Christianity. We weren't punctilious about locating and punishing only Hitler and his top officers. We carpet-bombed German cities; we killed civilians. That's war. And this is war.”      [upi.Sep.13.2001]
==Rupert Murdoch’s New York Post, which had published the editorial ‘Simply Kill the Bastards’ the day before (See Sep.12), tries to outdo itself with another bloodthirsty op-ed piece: “The heavens need to fall on (the terrorists) heads. They need to bleed. Not next month. Not next week. Now. Cast a wide enough net, and you'll catch the fish that need catching… Pinpoint them. Bomb them. And then bomb their smoldering rubble - one more time!…”      [nyp.Sep.13.2001]
==Fox News pundit Bill O’Reilly is eagerly discussing bombing Afghanistan when a skeptical guest asks him "Who will you kill in the process?"  O'Reilly responds "Doesn't make any difference."      [fair.Sep.17.2001]
==Gary Brookins publishes a cartoon in the Richmond Times-Dispatch entitled ‘Time to Take Names and Nuke Afghanistan.’      [richtd.Sep.13.2001]
==Stimulated by leaks from “a high White House official” expanding on the supposed terrorist plot to attack Air Force One (see Sep.11 and Sep.12), conservative New York Times columnist William Safire concludes that terrorist moles may have penetrated the White House or the federal security agencies.      [nyt.Sep.13.2001]

==Thomas Friedman writes that the 9/11 attacks marked the beginning of World War III, a long, long struggle “against all the super-empowered angry men and women out there.”  He seems to be arguing that America should suppress all terrorism and rebelliousness everywhere, even when it’s not directed against the US.  Friedman’s column later wins a Pulitzer Prize.      [nyt.Sep.13.2001]
==Media critic Danny Schechter comments on the steady drumbeat for war in news coverage, and notes “There is very little reporting on what this may lead to…”      [mdc.Sep.13.2001]

==The Republican-dominated FCC begins a review of the rule barring cross-ownership of daily newspapers and broadcast stations in the same markets.  Despite strong popular support for the rule, media conglomerates have long opposed it - the Newspaper Association of America calls it an “outdated and onerous restriction” - and are delighted by the review.  The FCC also launches a review of limits on cable companies.      [intnw.Sep.13.2001]


==Nearly all major sports events are canceled or postponed through the weekend.  “Nobody much feels like cheering,” comments Howard Kurtz of the Washington Post.      [nyt.Sep.14.2001 / wap.Sep.14.2001]
==The World Wrestling Federation’s usually wild ‘Smackdown’ show features wrestlers somberly discussing 9/11.      [lat.Sep.18.2001]

==A downloadable video game sold by Angelfire called ‘WTC Defender,’ in which players attempt to shoot down planes headed for the Twin Towers, is pulled from the Internet.  Angelfire offers apologies.  Store owners are also yanking Microsoft’s ‘Flight Simulator’ game, amidst speculation that the 9/11 hijackers may have used it to train for their attacks.  Microsoft refuses to withdraw the game, but agrees on Friday to remove images of the World Trade Center from it.      [bbc.Sep.13.2001 / gdn.Sep.14.2001 / ap.Sep.14.2001]

==A few musicians begin giving concerts once again.  Madonna performs in Los Angeles.  The Backstreet Boys gave a show in Toronto as early as Wednesday, although one of their crew members was on the flight that crashed into the North Tower.  But many other tours are still on hold.      [cnn.Sep.14.2001 / holly.Sep.14.2001 / bbc.Sep.14.2001]

==Movie studios and television networks are delaying or re-editing films which feature the World Trade Center or acts of terrorism.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001 / nyt.Sep.14.2001 / cnn.Sep.14.2001]
==All 23 Broadway shows reopen, observing a moment of silence and briefly dimming their marquees in deference to the victims of 9/11.  In several shows, cast members read memorial statements, in others the audience is asked to join in singing ‘God Bless America.’ Attendance is down, several openings are postponed, and the musical ‘Assassins,’ dealing with presidential murders, is canceled entirely.      [nwd.Sep.14.2001 / nyt.Sep.14.2001]

==At the encouragement of the city government, many museums and cultural institutions reopen in New York.      [nyt.Sep.14.2001]

Public Mood and Opinion:

==A Washington Post-ABC News poll conducted on Thursday shows the first solid indication of a sharp rise in Bush’s popularity - his job approval rating has risen to 86%, up 31% in four days.  Nine out of ten favored taking military action against any responsible country, seven out of ten were ready for even a prolonged and bloody war.  Seven out of ten were prepared to surrender freedoms for greater security.      [wap.Sep.13.2001]

==Bush and Ashcroft speak out strongly against blaming American Muslims for the 9/11 attacks.      [salon.Sep.13.2001]
==In Britain, ten pig heads were left outside a mosque in Exeter.      [gdn.Sep.22.2001]

==Appearing on Pat Robertson’s ‘700 Club’ on Thursday morning, the conservative preacher Jerry Falwell says that an angry God is likely to continue to “allow the enemies of America to give us probably what we deserve… I really believe that the pagans, and the abortionists, and the feminists, and the gays and the lesbians who are actively trying to make that an alternative lifestyle, the ACLU, People for the American Way -- all of them who have tried to secularize America -- I point the finger in their face and say, 'You helped this happen.’”  Robertson is supportive, saying “Jerry, that's my feeling” and “I totally concur.”  The broadcast provokes a furious public response, with strong denunciations of Falwell pouring in from across the political spectrum.  Nonetheless, the two evangelists initially refuse to back down.  On Friday, the Bush administration calls Falwell’s comments “inappropriate,” but does not rescind his invitation to attend Bush’s speech at the National Cathedral.  Facing continued public anger, Falwell releases a halfhearted apology on Monday, expressing regret if his words “seemed harsh and ill-timed,” but saying his real mistake was speaking “on television, where a secular media and audience were also listening,” and implying that he’s been the victim of distorted reporting.  By then, even Robertson is distancing himself from Falwell.  Falwell finally issues an unequivocal apology on Monday night, and renounces his original statements.      [wap.Sep.14.2001 / nyt.Sep.14+Sep.18.2001 / cbs.Sep.15.2001 / falwell.Sep.17+Sep.18.2001]

==Inmates at Folsom Prison in California donate money for the Red Cross and hang US flags made from paper scraps and rags from their bars.  One prisoner says “I may be a scumbag, but I'm an American scumbag.”      [lat.Sep.14.2001]

Civil Liberties:

==The Senate approves the ‘Combating Terrorism Act of 2001,’ the first significant post-9/11 federal law restricting civil liberties.  The measure is sponsored by Democrat Dianne Feinstein and Republican Orrin Hatch, who says “It is essential that we give our law enforcement authorities every possible tool” against terrorism.  The act makes it far easier for authorities to monitor computer communications, allowing prosecutors to authorize surveillance for up to 48 hours without a judge’s approval in some circumstances, including the investigation of most computer hacking offenses.  Senator Leahy objects that the hastily written, vaguely worded bill is much too broad, but it passes easily late Thursday night with minimal debate.  Evidently, many Senators don’t understand the law they approved - according to the ACLU, several Senate staff members call the civil liberties organization the next day and ask "What did we just vote on?"      [wire.Sep.14.2001 / spti.Sep.23.2001]
==In a floor speech, Senator Gregg (R-New Hampshire) calls for a global prohibition on communication encryption products that lack backdoors allowing government surveillance.      [wire.Sep.13.2001]

==House Minority Leader Gephardt said "We're in a new world where we have to rebalance freedom and security. We can't take away people's civil liberties . . . but we're not going to have all the openness and freedom we have had."      [wap.Sep.14.2001]


==Secretary of the Treasury Paul O’Neill says that any disruptions to the American economy by the attacks will only be short-term.      Most economists here and abroad are more pessimistic.       [sal.Sep.13.2001]

==It’s reported that new jobless claims for early September rose much more sharply than expected.  This rise in unemployment was already underway before the 9/11 attacks. A preliminary study from the University of Michigan indicates that consumer confidence was plummeting even before September 11.     [cnn.Sep.13+Sep.14.2001]

==The US Federal Reserve and the European Central Bank agree on a temporary swap arrangement that can transfer up to $50 billion to shore up the European financial system.      [reu.Sep.13.2001]

==US Treasury and bond markets reopen, and prices on government securities soar, as people look for safe investments.  Futures trading resumes in Chicago.  After some uncertainty, it’s announced that the New York Stock Exchange will resume trading on Monday morning, after what will be the longest suspension of trading since March 1933.      [cnn.Sep.14.2001 / nyt.Sep.13.2001 / indy.Sep.12.2001]

==Oil prices fell for the second day, wiping out their sharp rise just after 9/11, and stabilizing at just a few cents above their level before the attacks.       [reu.Sep.13.2001]

==It’s becoming clear that the already troubled airline industry is now facing a very severe crisis as a result of September 11, which one expert calls “the blackest day aviation has had.”  It’s estimated that flight cancellations in the last few days have cost the airlines $10 billion.   Rising delays and expenses are expected to lead to still greater long-term losses, which are expected to drive some smaller airlines and airports out of business.  Standard and Poor has already downgraded the credit ratings of American and British carriers.      [bbc.Sep.13.2001]
==Working quickly, American and United Airlines begin lobbying Congress to protect themselves from civil suits stemming from the 9/11 attacks.      [nyt.Sep.14.2001]
==UPS and Fedex resume air shipments.      [cnn.Sep.13.2001]

==Insurance companies expect 9/11 to be the most expensive manmade disaster in history, with preliminary estimates of the eventual claims ranging from $10 to $30 billion.      [bbc.Sep.13.2001]

==The Japanese government releases a gloomy economic report prepared before September 11.  A member of the coalition government, noting that the 9/11 attacks will worsen the already grim situation, urges the government to act fast to head off a deflationary spiral.      [bbc.Sep.13.2001]



9/11 Intro

September 12, 2001       September 14, 2001