9/11 memorial vigil in Munich shortly after the attacks

==Memorial silences and ceremonies are observed throughout Europe and much of the world on Friday.
=At 1000 AM GMT, 43 European countries observe a three minute silence in memory of the victims of 9/11. Towns and cities across the continent simultaneously briefly come to a standstill.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]
=The Irish Republic virtually shuts down while observing a national day of mourning. In the morning, the line of Dubliners waiting to sign the condolences book at the US embassy is a mile long.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]
=Great Britain was hit especially hard by 9/11 - the government says it has confirmed the deaths of at least 100 Britons in the attacks, and expects the final figure to rise to the “middle hundreds” (fortunately, Britain’s actual losses prove to be much smaller). Memorial services are held throughout the UK, including interdenominational services in Northern Ireland. As many as 2,600 people, including the Queen, attend a memorial service at St. Paul’s Cathedral, while 30,000 more gather outside. The Archbishop of Canterbury tells the congregation “May God give them (the US government) wisdom to use their great power in such ways that further evil aggression is indeed deterred, and the security and well being of all is advanced in our interdependent world.” On Friday evening, theaters in London dim their lights for five minutes in a tribute to the attack victims.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001 / gdn.Sep.14.2001]
=200,000 Berliners gather for a memorial at the Brandenburg Gate.  The American ambassador tells the crowd “On behalf of all Americans, I thank you from the bottom of my heart for your kindness and support. America will never forget this.”      [cnn.Sep.14.2001]

==Fifteen leaders of European Union governments sign an statement vowing to track down the perpetrators of the 9/11 attacks.     [cnn.Sep.14.2001]

==The House of Commons is recalled from its summer recess for an emergency session concerning the 9/11 crisis. Prime Minister Blair pledges to stand with the US government in its response to the attacks, but his support is not entirely unequivocal at this point - Blair insists that retaliation “must and will be based on hard evidence” and a spokesman later says that Blair isn’t intending to hand a “blank check” to the Bush administration. Nonetheless, the Guardian speculates that “Mr. Blair's stance opens up the prospect of the US and Britain lining up together behind a hawkish position while key European countries remain far more cautious.”  Most MPs back Blair’s strongly pro-US position, but a few Labour back-benchers are skeptical. George Galloway, a long-time critic of British and American Mideast policies, says “If you launch a devastating attack upon a Muslim country, killing thousands you will make 10,000 Bin Ladens rise up.”      [bbc.Sep.14.2001 / nyt.Sep.16.2001 / gdn.Sep.15.2001]

==European leaders who were already concerned by the sweeping rhetoric coming from Washington become even more suspicious when they hear early hints that the Bush administration is considering an invasion of Iraq. By Friday, some Europeans are clearly asserting their independence even while reaffirming their support of the US.      [gdn.Sep.15.2001]
=French Prime Minister Jospin says “Our humane, political and functional solidarity (with America) does not deprive us of our sovereignty and freedom to make up our own minds… We are not at war against Islam or the Arab-Muslim world.”      [gdn.Sep.15.2001]
=German Foreign Minister Fischer says that 9/11 “was also an attack on the open society,” and warns against allowing the crisis to undermine civil liberties, especially those of Muslim citizens.      [wat.Sep.15.2001]
=Russia’s initial enthusiastic support for US military retaliation is already cooling off. Moscow worries that an American 'war on terrorism' could eventually threaten Iran, which is a major market for Russian military and nuclear technology and which is working with Russia on developing oil resources in the Caspian Sea. More immediately, there are fears that full-scale war in Afghanistan could destabilize Central Asia, which would directly threaten Russia itself. Russia already has 25,000 troops stationed in Tajikistan. On Friday, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov bluntly rejects the possibility of the US staging military operations against the Taliban from Russia or from the Central Asian states.  General Kvashnin, head of the General Staff, says it is unlikely that Russian forces will participate in American “acts of revenge,” adding “The United States has powerful enough military forces that it can cope with this task on its own.” Commenting on Moscow’s unsentimental foreign policy, the New York Times observes “To enlist Russia fully in the fight against terrorism, the West would have to offer something beyond the warm feeling of joining a cause.”      [nyt.Sep.15.2001 / ap.Sep.14.2001]

Middle East:
==Several Palestinians are injured as Israeli tanks and troops move into Ramallah on the West Bank. Several more Palestinians are injured and two are killed in clashes in the Gaza Strip.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]
==Bush and Colin Powell phone Prime Minister Sharon to encourage Israel to pursue cease-fire talks with the Palestinians. Sharon rejects their requests and cancels a scheduled Sunday meeting between Israeli Foreign Minister Peres and Arafat.  Sharon also tells Bush that he objects to US attempts to draw Syria and the Palestinians into the anti-terrorist coalition.      [lat.Sep.15.2001 / nyt.Sep.15.2001]

==The sixth annual meeting of the radical wing of the Islamic movement among Israeli Arabs is held in a soccer stadium in northern Israel. Tens of thousands attend the gathering, which is part carnival, part religious service, and part political rally. The participants support the intifada in general, but there are many strong condemnations of the 9/11 attacks. Ra'ed Salah, the leader of the Islamic movement, earnestly urges President Bush to convert to Islam.      [nyt.Sep.15.2001]
==In Friday prayers throughout the Islamic world, many Muslim clerics denounce the 9/11 attacks. In Lebanon, the spiritual leader of the hardline Shia Hezbollah group calls the attacks “barbaric acts.” On the other hand, a nationally televised sermon in Iraq characterizes the attacks as a blow against tyranny, and in services in a West Bank mosque dominated by Hamas, 9/11 isn’t mentioned at all.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]

==Secretary of State Colin Powell announces that the US is setting a “new benchmark” for its relations with other countries, based on how closely they cooperate with America’s war on terrorism. On the same day, a senior State Department official meets with envoys from 15 Arab nations, including Syrian and Palestinian representatives, and conveys demands that they join the international coalition against terrorism and crush terrorists operating from their own territories or face isolation. The Egyptian ambassador warns that America should focus on tracking down al-Qaeda and not broaden its efforts to include larger geopolitical goals.  This advice is not heeded.      [wap.Sep.15.2001 / nyt.Sep.15.2001]

==Turkish forces are placed on high alert in anticipation of possible military action by the US.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]

Persian Gulf:
==In Tehran’s main football stadium, 60,000 spectators and players observe a one-minute silence in honor of the victims of the 9/11 attacks prior to the World Cup qualifier match between Iran and Bahrain.      [ap.Sep.15.2001]
==There are disputes within the Bush administration over whether Iran could be a useful ally in a conflict with Afghanistan. America’s old enemy has been surprisingly sympathetic in its response to 9/11 and is a bitter enemy of the Taliban - but Iran also actively supports Hezbollah, which makes it anathema to pro-Israeli neoconservatives in the US government.      [reu.Sep.14.2001 / ap.Sep.15.2001]

Afghanistan/Central Asia/South Asia:
==The Taliban regime is becoming openly belligerent in response to growing American pressure.
=A Taliban spokesman warns that the regime will seek revenge “by other means” if America attacks Afghanistan. The Taliban also sternly warns its old friend Pakistan not to assist the US.      [gdn.Sep.14.2001 / asti.Sep.15.2001]
=Taliban leader Mullah Omar exhorts Afghans to prepare for war: “Don’t be cowards!… Death comes to everyone. We must stand proud as Afghans in the defense of Islam. Believe in God, for with the grace of God the American rockets will go astray and we will be saved. I am not afraid of death or of losing power… Every Muslim should be ready for holy war.” Omar denies that bin Laden was responsible for the 9/11 attacks and charges that America’s real motive for blaming him is to demonize Islam.     [nyt.Sep.15.2001 / gdn.Sep.15.2001 / cnn.Sep.14.2001]

==Men from the inner circle of the Taliban regime are suddenly installed as governors in Afghanistan’s border provinces. No explanation is given.      [ap.Sep.15.2001]
==The Taliban ambassador to Pakistan announces that no new visas will be issued, giving the novel reason that there is no place to stay in all of Afghanistan. He tells reporters “All houses are full. When the houses will be vacant we will permit you.”     [reu.Sep.14.2001]

==Aid agencies which have had to shut down their operations in Afghanistan warn that the situation there is growing desperate for millions of people, and that war is likely to bring about a flood of refugees and widespread famine unless action is taken quickly. One aid worker who had just fled the country says: “I just pray that I'm not the one sent back in spring after the winter snow's have thawed and have to walk through the ghost villages and possibly see piles of corpses in the villages in the mountains.”      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]
==A baker fleeing Kabul tells a reporter “In a situation like this you feel that death is creeping up on you…”      [reu.Sep.14.2001]

==The death of anti-Taliban leader Ahmad Shah Massoud is publicly reported, though it’s still not officially confirmed by the Northern Alliance. Massoud’s assassination took place September 9. See Sep.15.      [frp.Sep.14.2001]

==Secretary of State Powell warns the Taliban regime: “you need to understand you cannot separate your activities from the activity of these perpetrators (al-Qaeda).”      [cnn.Sep.14.2001]
==Senior State Department official Richard Haass warns that the United States will not be restrained by legal issues concerning Afghan sovereignty if it determines that the Taliban was involved in the 9/11 attacks.     [bbc.Sep.14.2001]

==Articles are beginning to appear warning of the risks of invading Afghanistan.
=Robert Fisk’s ‘The lesson of history: Afghanistan always beats its invaders’ grimly recounts the disastrous history of British and Russian interventions in the region.      [ind.2001.09.14]
=An editorial in the New York Times says “Washington will have to act with exceeding care and skill” in navigating the tangled international politics of Central Asia - “President Bush will have no margin for error.”      [nyt,Sep.14.2001]
=The former head of the Russian security police warns that “In Afghanistan's mountainous terrain, it takes a trainload of explosives to destroy three militants. The chance of hitting bin Laden is zero.”      [ap.Sep.14.2001]
=Expatriate Afghan Tamim Ansary writes that most of his countrymen would welcome the overthrow of the oppressive Taliban regime. But he cautions that talk of “bombing Afghanistan back to the Stone Age” is futile. “Trouble is, that's been done. The Soviets took care of it already… New bombs would only stir the rubble of earlier bombs.” And sending in ground troops could lead to catastrophe: “We're flirting with a world war between Islam and the West… Who has the belly for that? Bin Laden does. Anyone else?”      [sal.Sep.14.2001]

==Meeting in Kazakhstan, the ‘Shanghai group’ - the prime ministers of Russia, China, and four Central Asian states - issue a joint declaration calling for united action against terrorism.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]
==In Islamabad, America, Russia, and several Central Asian nations attend a UN-sponsored meeting on controlling drug smuggling from Afghanistan.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]

==Under intensifying pressure to align with America, Pakistani officials say they need more time to reach a decision. President Musharraf holds a tense seven-hour meeting with his senior generals at Army House in Rawalpindi. Many Pakistanis are aware that failure to fully agree to US demands could result in their country becoming a pariah state, subject to crippling international sanctions,  but are also wary of becoming too closely tied to America. One paper comments “Pakistan's experience of fulfilling the roles it was given by the U.S. ... have not always been salubrious."      [gdn.Sep.14+Sep.18.2001 / nyt.Sep.14.2001 / reu.Sep.14.2001]
==Small detachments of Pakistani troops quietly deploy at key locations in Islamabad and Karachi. Police stop all cars entering the embassy section of Islamabad and question the drivers. British Petroleum and other companies order all their foreign employees to leave the country. Islamabad International Airport closes for over two hours before dawn for large-scale military shipments. There are rumors - almost certainly false - that a contingent of US Marines and FBI agents was flown into the airport while it was closed.     [reu.Sep.14.2001 / pion.Sep.15.2001]

==While some major Pakistani mosques conduct special Friday prayers for the victims of the 9/11 attacks, others are less sympathetic. Several hundred worshippers emerged from prayers in Peshawar shouting out pro-Taliban slogans and calling for holy war. One young worshipper in Islamabad said "If America attacks Afghanistan, I myself will kill George Bush. The Muslims of the world are united. We are the real superpower. If America attacks, it will be the beginning of World War Three."      [ap.Sep.14.2001 / bbc.Sep.14.2001 / wap.Sep.15.2001]
==The pro-Taliban Hamid Gul, an influential retired general and former head of the ISI (Pakistani intelligence), says “Afghans defeated one superpower, and by the grace of God they will defeat another if the United States decides to attack Afghanistan.” On Tuesday, Gul is quoted as saying that Pakistanis will rise if Musharraf allows US forces to enter the country, and that the army will join the revolt. “If the nation abandons its leader, then the army will side with the nation. The general will be left dangling in the air.” Gul adds that only a few "westernized pseudo-intellectuals" have any liking for America.      [nyt.Sep.15.2001 / gdn.Sep.18.2001]

==In a nationally televised address, Indian Prime Minister Vajpayee reaffirms his full support for America’s campaign against terrorism.  India is hoping that the US will pressure Pakistan to cease backing Islamist terrorists in Kashmir.      [nyt.Sep.15.2001]

==The BBC reports that Islamist extremism is rapidly gaining ground in the traditionally tolerant West African nation of Mali. Many Malians resent what they see as American interference.       [bbc.Sep.14.2001]

==In Nairobi, where the 1998 al-Qaeda bombing of the US Embassy killed over 200, thousands of Kenyans attend a moving 9/11 memorial service in Uhuru Park.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]

==South African senior statesman Nelson Mandela condemns the 9/11 attacks and urges that the perpetrators be punished “most severely,” but warns that American retaliation "must not be allowed now to raise, to intensify, hatred against the Arab nations and the Muslims.”      [gdn.Sep.14.2001]

East Asia:
==Memorial ceremonies for the victims of 9/11 are held throughout South Korea. Even protesters encamped near US Forces Headquarters joined in the mourning.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]
==The Dalai Lama donates $30,000 to 9/11 relief funds.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]

==After a 15-year application process, an agreement is reached to admit China to the World Trade Organization.      [ap.Sep.15.2001]

Latin America:
==The Argentine Economy Minister accuses Brazil of undermining the Argentine real.  The Argentine currency has dropped 30% against the dollar in 2001, and its fall has sharply accelerated since 9/11.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]

==75,000 Canadians attend a memorial ceremony in Ottawa.      [bbc.Sep.15.2001]
==Canada pledges to meet any US request for troops or equipment.      [wat.Sep.15.2001]

==Acting on a request from Rumsfeld, Bush gives the Pentagon the authority to call as many as 50,000 National Guardsmen and reservists to active duty. The military is planning on calling up about 35,000 in the near future for ‘homeland defense,’ including support for patrols of US airspace.      [bbc.Sep.15.2001 / ap.Sep.15.2001]

==The promotion of war with Iraq continues.  Former CIA Director R. James Woolsey claims there’s a good chance Iraq is behind the 9/11 attacks, and says that if Saddam is responsible “all instruments of power to the Iraqi state should be destroyed: the Republican Guard, everything associated with Saddam Hussein, everything associated with their weapons of mass destruction program.”  But on the same day, a US official contradicts Woolsey, saying “Everything so far continues to point to bin Laden. Iraq doesn't seem to be panning out, and the same thing with Iran.”      [wap.Sep.14.2001 / bog.Sep.14.2001]

==Retired British General Michael Rose, formerly head of the elite SAS, urges the US to avoid a massive military response which would be likely to enflame Muslim public opinion.  He recommends sending special forces teams against carefully selected targets.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]

==The Justice Department releases the names of the 19 suspected 9/11 hijackers, and links some of the suspects to al-Qaeda.     [ap.Sep.15.2001 / fbi.Sep.14.2001]
==Justice Department officials release a list of 100 individuals wanted for questioning.  FBI Director Mueller announces that the thousands of agents investigating the attacks have already issued hundreds of subpoenas and have served more than 30 search warrants. The agency receives 36,000 leads in the first days of the investigation.      [ap.Sep.15.2001]
==In what is described at the time as “the first break in the investigation that has spanned the globe,” federal authorities make a highly publicized first arrest in the 9/11 investigation, holding one of the Middle Eastern men detained Thursday night at JFK Airport in New York as a material witness. The ‘break’ goes nowhere - suspicions were aroused because of discrepancies in his pilot’s license, but the license proves to be valid and he is released after three weeks.     [ap.Sep.15.2001 / wsj.Oct.22.2001]
==Canadian authorities are preparing to turn over a Palestinian aircraft maintenance engineer to US authorities. The man was evidently detained because he had a photograph of himself wearing a flight jacket and standing near a backdrop depicting New York City that included the World Trade Center.      [wap.Sep.15.2001]
==FBI Director Mueller describes reports that several of the hijackers had received flight training in the United States as "news, quite obviously… If we had understood that to be the case, we would have -- perhaps one could have averted this." In fact, agents had been warning FBI headquarters for years that Middle Eastern terrorists could be training at flight schools. See May.18.1998      [wap.Sep.15.2001]

==The FBI warns Richmond and Atlanta that they could be targets of terrorist threats, then withdraws the alert after the agency decides that the source isn’t credible. This is perhaps the first of the many vague terror attack warnings issued by the government over the next several months.  See Sep.19      [wap.Sep.15.2001]

==The Airline Pilots Association of America issues new guidelines on dealing with hijackings.  Previously, pilots were urged to cooperate with hijackers; now they are told to be prepared to use deadly force to resist them.     [gdn.Sep.15.2001]
=Conservative Congressman Ron Paul introduces a bill to allow airline pilots, co-pilots, and navigators to arm themselves.      [sal.Sep.20.2001]
=An aviation industry analyst says “I think in the near term you are going to see US airports will be near paralyzed, because they will go overboard on security.”      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]

==Prominent techie Steve Kirsch proposes that planes be made hijack-proof by equipping them with irrevocable auto-pilot systems that would land them at the nearest airport in the event of an attempted takeover.      [zdnet.Sep.14.2001]

==The Treasury Department forms an interagency task force dedicated to cutting off funds for terrorist groups. The task force does not prove especially effective.      [wap.2001.09.15]

==In Europe, authorities arrest four Islamic militants in Rotterdam and two in Brussels late Thursday to Friday. French news sources report on Saturday that one of the arrested men was planning to attack the US embassy in Paris.      [bbc.Sep.14+Sep.15.2001]
==Philippine officials announce that three Omanis who fled Manila shortly before the 9/11 attacks may have been planning to bomb the US Embassy.      [wap.Sep.15.2001]

9/11 Aftermath:
==A strong cold front blows into New York City in the pre-dawn hours, bringing falling temperatures and heavy rain that continues off and on throughout the morning. The rain washes away some of the heavy layer of dust from lower Manhattan, but it transforms Ground Zero into a morass, slowing rescue work. The New York Times describes the area as “a muddy, malodorous and frenetic village built around shifting mounds of debris.”      [weatu.Sep.14.2001 / pbs.Sep.14.2001 / nyt.Sep.15.2001]

==A firefighter/filmmaker describes the disorder at Ground Zero: “It's just a mess out there today. There's no organization. The firefighters are emotionally starting to lose it…  No one appears to really have control of ground zero.” She also mentions many cases of severe respiratory distress among rescue workers. (On the same day, an EPA spokesman falsely claims that air samples taken from around Ground Zero “did not show any elevated level of concern.”)      [cnn.Sep.14.2001]
==There is an early report of looting in Lower Manhattan. There are also reports of people trying to get past police barricades by falsely claiming to be rescue workers.      [nyt.Sep.15.2001]

==Trying to impose some order on the chaotic rescue activity at Ground Zero, New York authorities announce that they don’t need any more volunteers. By the end of the day, well-marked command posts have been set up, with food and supply distribution points.      [nyt.Sep.15.2001]
=Officials also end requests for emergency supplies. Among the loads of clothing that have been donated to rescue workers at the WTC is a bag of velvet tops with spaghetti straps.      [wiki / nyt.Sep.15.2001]

==At dawn on Friday, a group of firefighters on break from rescue work at the World Trade Center are seen amusing themselves by trying on top hats at the nearby Brooks Brothers store. In an abandoned food court close to Ground Zero, volunteers get several kitchens operating in order to serve hot food.  Electrical cords and light bulbs are strung up on the ceilings, giving the restaurants a weirdly festive appearance that’s offset by the exhausted workers sleeping at the tables and the body bags being carried through the food court on their way to a nearby morgue.      [nyt.Sep.15.2001]

==To aid in the identification of victims, families of the missing are urged to provide the authorities with personal items that might contain DNA samples, such as hairbrushes, toothbrushes, unwashed clothes, or licked envelopes. FEMA is also asking for the cell phone numbers of presumed victims, hoping that by tracking the phones’ locations they might be able to pinpoint the owners’ remains.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001 / cnn.Sep.14.2001]

==A pair of severed hands bound by plastic handcuffs are found on the roof of building near Ground Zero.  They are presumed to have come from one of the crashed airliners.      [nwd.Sep.15.2001]

==See 'Administration' for Bush’s visit to the World Trade Center

==Many of the pictures of the missing that have been posted around New York are soaked by the rains. A Washington Post reporter writes "the faces began to dissolve in a miserable, gray morning rain, transformed into soggy pulp."      [wap.Sep.16.2001]

==Friday had been proclaimed a national day of prayer and remembrance in America, and there are many memorial services and vigils throughout the country, often inter-faith.  Thousands of New Yorkers participate in candle-lit vigils in the evening - some sing patriotic songs; others retort with 'Give Peace a Chance.'      [ap.Sep.14.2001 / obs.Sep.16.2001]
==See 'Administration' for the memorial service at the National Cathedral

==The news media is allowed to take a close look at the Pentagon crash site for the first time. A reporter describes the scene: “The left side of the hole revealed all five floors of the building in a clean slice. Metal beams curved into the shape of macaroni. Desk pieces lay scattered about… On one of the upper floors, what looked like a computer faced out into the open air, its screen turned off but intact. The two bottom floors of the building were as dark as the color that oozes out of a can of black spray paint. Crumpled blinds fluttered through windows with no glass.”      [ap.Sep.15.2001]
==Both of Flight 77’s charred black boxes are found at the Pentagon. It’s soon determined that the voice recorder is damaged and its information can’t be retrieved.      [wap.Sep.14+Sep.15.2001]

==Partly due to the gathering of senior officials at the National Cathedral (see The Administration), security is especially tight in Washington. Downtown traffic clogs as various agencies seal off or reopen streets, acting without any coordinated plan and often without any prior announcements.      [wap.Sep.14.2001]
==An expanded security zone around the White House is in place during the day, marked off by yellow tape and police cars blocking the streets. Only pedestrians with proper identification are allowed in. People with jobs within the perimeter are compelled to line up in the rain as they’re processed through checkpoints. A federal worker comments “I do realize the need for security, but… you just never thought you'd see this happen” - another describes the situation as “absolutely intimidating.” Businesses and restaurants inside the perimeter are nearly devoid of customers.      [wap.Sep.15.2001 / ap.Sep.14.2001]
==As night falls, the enlarged security zone around the White House contracts to its normal size. In the evening, National Guardsmen are withdrawn from downtown intersections. At midnight, the state of emergency is lifted, although the capital remains on heightened alert. District police return to regular shifts the next day.      [ap.Sep.14.2001 / wap.Sep.15.2001]

==Flight 93’s second black box - the voice recorder - is found under 12 feet of dirt at the wreckage crater.      [wap.Sep.15.2001]
==On Friday evening, 3,000 people attend a candlelight vigil a few miles from Flight 93’s crash site.      [ap.Sep.15.2001]

==A day after airlines resumed service, there are about a third of the normal number of flights in the air, and passengers are still very wary. Continental Airlines flew only 40 percent of its schedule, and only 40 percent of the seats on those flights were filled. About 30 percent of passengers who booked tickets did not show up. There is still plenty of confusion - a frustrated spokesman for private aircraft operators complains that “…the communication failure within the FAA itself and other government agencies has produced an aviation crisis in its own right.”      [wap.Sep.14+Sep.15.2001 / nyt.Sep.15.2001]
=Trans-Atlantic flights resume, but schedules are still in chaos and it takes days to clear the backlog of passengers stuck overseas since 9/11. Airlines refuse to pay for stranded travelers’ hotel rooms and often charge over $1600 to passengers who have to switch tickets, in what is widely seen as price gouging.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001 / nyt.Sep.15.2001]
=Cargo flights also resume, and UPS and Federal Express quickly return to near-normal levels of operation.      [wap.Sep.15.2001]
=Some privately owned aircraft are permitted to fly by late afternoon, after strong pressure from growers desperate for crop-dusting flights.      [wap.Sep.15.2001]
==Despite the long lines and delays, passengers are surprisingly patient - or perhaps still shellshocked.  An Atlanta airport official said “It's almost surreal in that there is no whining . . . no complaining.”      [wap.Sep.15.2001]

==In the four days since the attacks, the Red Cross has received $18.1 million in online donations, which is more than 4000 times the amount it would normally have raised. The tremendous flood of 9/11 donations is eventually more than the Red Cross can effectively handle.      [nyt.Sep.14.2001 / gdn.Oct.31.2001]
=There are reports of phony telephone solicitors asking for donations to fraudulent 9/11 charities.      [ap.Sep.14.2001]

==The US government abruptly curtails the American tour of a group of Chinese journalists. There are reports that the journalists were expelled for cheering footage of the 9/11 attacks; the State Department neither confirms nor denies the story.      [afp.Sep.15.2001 / wap.Sep.18.2001]

The Administration:
==Around noon, Bush addresses a memorial service at the National Cathedral in Washington, giving his first effective post-9/11 speech. He says that America was targeted because of its freedoms, that the United States must “rid the world of evil,” and that the “conflict was begun on the timing and terms of others; it will end in a way and at an hour of our choosing.”      [cnn.Sep.14.2001]
=The televised service, “minutely planned by the White House,” is attended by former Presidents Ford, Carter, Bush, and Clinton, former Vice President Gore, members of Congress, much of the Cabinet, and a host of American and foreign dignitaries. Cheney avoids the event for security reasons. In addition to Bush’s speech, remarks are delivered by several religious leaders, including the ailing Billy Graham. Nathan Baxter, dean of the National Cathedral, prays “Save us from blind vengeance, from random prejudice and from crippling fear… We ask for wisdom from the grace of God that we not become the evil we deplore.”      [ap.Sep.14.2001 / wap.Sep.15.2001 / cnn.Sep.14.2001 / cbc.Sep.15.2001]

==Around mid-afternoon on Friday, Bush finally appears in New York City with a large Congressional delegation and takes a quick helicopter tour of the devastated area with Mayor Giuliani and Governor Pataki as warplanes fly overhead. Afterwards, Bush visits Ground Zero, where he engages in a rare impromptu exchange with a crowd. As rescue personnel chant “U.S.A! U.S.A.!,” Bush climbs atop a small pile of rubble and uses a bullhorn to thank them for their efforts. When some workers call out that they can’t hear, Bush responds "I can hear you! I can hear you! The rest of the world hears you, and the people who knocked these buildings down will hear all of us soon!" The crowd reacts with cheers and more chants of “U.S.A.!” Workers at Ground Zero are clearly encouraged by Bush’s visit, but there is also annoyance over the two hour shutdown of rescue work caused by the extremely tight security measures.      [nyt.Sep.14.2001 / cnn.Sep.14.2001 / dmn.Sep.15.2001]
==From about Friday onwards Bush is generally perceived as being more effective than he was in the first days after the attacks. But while his capable National Cathedral speech and his rousing visit to Ground Zero reassure many people, most of Bush’s sharp rise in approval ratings occurred before Friday, (See 'Public Mood and Opinion,' Sep.13) presumably due to the public’s tendency to rally behind leaders in times of crisis.      [wap.Sep.14.2001]

==See 'Civil Liberties' for Bush’s declaration of a state of emergency

==On Friday morning, after reaching an agreement with administration officials, Congress unanimously agrees to provide $40 billion in emergency funds - twice the amount that Bush originally asked for. $10 billion is immediately available for the administration to spend however it wants, another $10 billion will be available within 15 days after the administration submits a spending plan to Congress, and $20 billion more can be requested as part of the regular budget process. Congress intends that at least half the money will be spent on disaster assistance, primarily for New York, but in the end New York will get much less. (see Administration Sep.13) The funds are to come from projected budget surpluses, mostly from money earmarked for Social Security. David Obey, the senior Democrat on the House Appropriations Committee, warns that the bill “provides unprecedented grants of authority to the president,” though he believes Congress retains adequate control. Obey says the $40 billion is only “a down payment" on a "long twilight struggle against terrorism. This is going to be a very nasty enterprise."      [wap.Sep.14+Sep.15.2001 / ap.Sep.14.2001]

==Congress passes a resolution authorizing the administration to "use all necessary and appropriate force" in response to the 9/11 attacks, though the measure does not grant the very broad warmaking powers the administration sought. It explicitly does not supersede the War Powers Resolution of 1973 that requires the president to seek Congressional approval before committing US troops to extended periods of combat. In the morning, the Senate unanimously approves the use-of-force measure without debate; the House discusses it for five hours before passing it 420-1 in the evening. During the House debate, Republican Charles Norwood of Georgia tells terrorists “We are coming after you -- and the fury of Hell is coming with us.” A few Congressmen - again including Bob Barr - push for a formal declaration of war. Other Congressmen worry that the administration is being given too much authority. California Democrat Maxine Waters urges Bush not to “abuse this awesome power.” Barbara Lee, another California Democrat, casts the only vote against the resolution, fearing that Congress was ceding too much power to the president, advising lawmakers to “step back for a moment and think through the implications of our action today so that it does not spiral out of control,” and warning “we must be careful not to embark on an open-ended war with neither an exit strategy nor a focused target.”      [wap.Sep.15.2001 / nyt.Sep.15.2001 / reu.Sep.15.2001 / cnn.Sep.15.2001]

==Republican Senators McConnell of Kentucky and Burns of Montana introduce legislation that directs the Treasury Department to issue war bonds for the first time since World War II. This patriotic gesture is popular, but fiscally largely meaningless - economics columnist Paul Krugman later calls it “a proposal that (is) generally acknowledged to be silly.”      [knr.Sep.15.2001 / nyt.Oct.24.2001]

==The Senate easily approves two key Bush nominees: John Negroponte as ambassador to the United Nations and Air Force General Richard Myers as chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Serious complaints that Negroponte condoned human rights abuses while serving as the US Ambassador to Honduras under Reagan have made him a controversial choice.      [ap.Sep.14.2001]

==See ‘Business’ for Congressional proposals to aid airlines

Other Politics:
==Bill Clinton and Al Gore meet at Clinton’s home in New York prior to flying to Washington for services at the National Cathedral.  The two men talk at length and partially renew their estranged friendship.      [wap.Nov.17.2002]

==Hardline commentary continues to be predominant:
==In the Washington Post, George Will writes that militant Muslims oppose Israel because it represents Western civilization and that they “hate America because it is the purest expression of modernity.”  He charges that Americans who object to the Sharon government’s extreme tactics are guilty of “irresolution and squeamishness.”  Will goes on to say that to end terrorism the US must attack “certain supportive states,” without specifying which states he has in mind.  The Post’s Sep.14 op-ed page is completely dominated by pro-war editorials.      [wap.Sep.14.2001 / mdc.Sep.14.2001]
==In the conservative Washington Times, former intelligence officer Thomas Woodrow calls for the use of tactical nuclear weapons against al-Qaeda training camps in Afghanistan, lest the United States be seen as cowardly. Woodrow is evidently unaware that the camps have already been evacuated. See Afghanistan/South Asia.Sep.13      [wat.Sep.14.2001]
==Also in the Washington Times, a story on international reactions to the 9/11 attacks begins with the hopeful comment “Suddenly, anti-Americanism is no longer fashionable.”      [wat.Sep.14.2001]

==Other opinion pieces are appearing that warn against overreaction and against the manipulation of public opinion:
==In the Guardian, Martin Woollacott gives a lucid overview of the foreign policy choices available to the Bush administration. He disparages the overblown rhetoric issuing from Washington - “In the anguish of this week's events, everybody reaches for the big words” - and cautions against the “tendency to inflate the size of the enemy to fit the size of the crime.”     [gdn.Sep.14.2001]
==Uneasily surveying the political situation in America in the first days after the attacks, liberal columnist David Corn warns that  “extremism begets extremism.”      [nat.Sep.14.2001]
==New York Times columnist Paul Krugman issues an early warning against post-9/11 political opportunism. “This tragedy will only be magnified if it is exploited for political gain. Politicians who wrap themselves in the flag while relentlessly pursuing their usual partisan agenda are not true patriots, and history will not forgive them.”      [nyt.Sep.14.2001]

==An editorial posted on a Trotskyite website warns that the Bush administration will use the crisis to pursue “an open-ended expansion of US military action abroad and a crackdown on dissent at home… creating the conditions for profound and lasting changes on both the foreign and domestic front… There is little doubt that one of the first targets for a massive bombing campaign, combined with a ground invasion, will be Iraq. But other countries are certain to follow… The viability of what remains of the social safety net—Medicare and Social Security—will not be allowed to stand in the way” of soaring military spending.      [wsws.Sep.14.2001]
==Leftist gadfly Christopher Hitchens denounces Bush as “a shadow framed by powerful advisers and handlers, a glove puppet with little volition of his own and a celebrated indifference to foreign affairs.” But Hitchens soon begins swinging to the right, attacking liberals for being soft on Islamist terrorism, eventually fiercely supporting the war on Iraq, and for a time becoming an ardent admirer of Bush.      [dami.Sep.14.2001]

==Fox News repeatedly scrolls a telephone number that is purportedly for a hotline providing post-9/11 ‘mental health’ assistance. Unknown to Fox, the number connects distraught callers to a Scientology phone bank.      [spti.Sep.15.2001]

==See also 'Afghanistan/Central Asia/South Asia' for commentaries on the impending attack on Afghanistan

==Again performing in Los Angeles (see Sep.13), Madonna asks the crowd to join her in a silent prayer for peace. Before the prayer minute is up, some members of the audience begin waving flags and chanting “USA! USA!”      [reu.Sep.15.2001]

Public Mood and Opinion:
==In the days after 9/11, the most visible sign of the public mood in the US is the ubiquity of American flags. Many people instinctively begin displaying flags immediately after the attacks to express solidarity and patriotism. Flag sales skyrocket - despite shortages, Wal-Mart sells 450,000 American flags between Tuesday and Thursday, compared to 26,000 for the same period a year earlier. By about Friday, flags are everywhere, especially on vehicles. Millions of drivers stick tiny flags on their antennas, fly foot-long flags from plastic attachments that hook into their windows, or occasionally, if they’re real enthusiasts, somehow fasten full-sized flags to their cars. Not everyone is impressed with the flag-waving. Some find it an empty gesture - on Sep.25, television host Bill Maher says putting a flag on your car is “literally the least you can do.” One conservative poster to alt.conspiracy is outraged that liberals (who he calls “Plastic people. Cowards, fakes and phony.”) have the temerity to fly American flags.      [cnn.Sep.14.2001 / polinc.Sep.25.2001 / usen.Sep.11.2001]
=Since US flag-makers are unable to keep up with the demand, the boom in American flag sales is a windfall for foreign manufacturers. 113 million flags are imported from overseas by the end of 2001, mostly from China and above all from the Shanghai Flag & Tent Works. The largest number imported before 2001 was 2.5 million.      [csm.Jul.01.2003]
=The flags-on-cars trend doesn’t last long. Within three or four weeks actual flags are being replaced by flag stickers, which seems more practical, but less spontaneous and dramatic. By late fall, many of the remaining car flags have become frayed and faded.     [personal observation]

==Bill Schrempf, the CEO of Florida-based NCCI - a firm that processes workman’s comp data - bans the display of American flags in the workplace as potentially divisive… an amazing decision, considering the ferociously patriotic public mood at the time.  After a furious storm of criticism, the unfortunate Schrempf rescinds the rule and apologizes to his employees on Sep.17 and then resigns as CEO on Oct.05.      [urblrp.Sep.20.2001 / insur.Oct.09.2001]

==Two Massachusetts Congressmen, Marty Meehan and Richard Neal, who mildly criticize Bush’s response to 9/11 are immediately hit with a wave of enraged - even threatening - phone calls and e-mails, and are subjected to blistering attacks from conservative commentators. The two are called “the Taliban Twins” and Meehan is labeled “Osama bin Meehan.” The startled Congressmen quickly back away from their comments and make placating phone calls to the White House. A Republican state senator in Massachusetts says “The best way we can honor our country and those whose lives have been sacrificed . . . is to reserve judgment about our government's response until all the facts are in.” Public criticism of Bush had been widespread in America in the first days after 9/11, but now it suddenly becomes virtually taboo and remains largely suppressed for several months. From this point on, national unity is enforced by a strong element of coercion.      [boh.Sep.14+Sep.15+Sep.16.2001]

==At a memorial service for the victims of 9/11 at a mosque in Queens, the imam warns his congregation “In the coming days we will be targeted.  Do not congregate in large numbers. Women, try to stay home. And above all, please do not have public discussions of this topic.”      [nyt.Sep.15.2001]
=A concerned Muhammad Ali personally calls on Americans not to condemn all Muslims for the 9/11 attacks.      [gdn.Sep.14.2001]

==Anti-Muslim incidents continue in America and throughout much of the world. Among the many reports:
=On Friday morning, a man is apprehended after brandishing a gun and making threats on the grounds of the Saudi embassy in Washington.      [wap.Sep.14.2001]
=Molotov cocktails are thrown at a mosque in Brisbane. See Sep.12      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]
=In Evansville, Indiana, an especially determined man rams his car into the local Islamic Center, breaks one window with his fist and throws a rock through another window.      [ap.Sep.14.2001]
==At least one American Muslim woman isn’t putting up with any crap - Maysoon Abu-Omarah tells a reporter “I was born in New Jersey. I'm just as American as everyone else and I'd like someone to tell me I'm not. I will not be threatened by anyone."      [ap.Sep.14.2001]

==The best selling book at Amazon.com on Friday is 'Nostradamus: The Complete Prophecies', largely because of a prophecy that seems to foresee the destruction of the World Trade Center and the resultant outbreak of World War III. The prophecy is a hoax. An exasperated Guardian reporter gives his opinion of this and other fringe rumors and theories: “It's bunkum. Bilge. Tripe.”      [sal.Sep.17.2001 / gdn.Sep.18.2001]

Civil Liberties:
==Bush formally declares a national state of emergency. The declaration authorizes him to activate as many as 470 dormant statutes, potentially giving the presidency enormous powers, though for now Bush only utilizes nine provisions pertaining to the military. The state of emergency will be repeatedly extended in the years to come.      [ap.Sep.14.2001 / slt.Sep.17.2001]
==Military tribunals are publicly mentioned for the first time. Some policymakers are arguing that the regular legal system is not equipped to deal with terrorism, and are recommending the establishment of tribunals to try suspected terrorists.  A former Reagan administration Justice official characterizes military tribunals as “a civilized response.”      [wap.Sep.14.2001]

==Reuters reports that “Congress is moving on a crush of proposals that would bolster security, curb civil liberties and clearly change the American way of life.”      [reu.Sep.14.2001]

==Home Secretary Blunkett indicates that the British government is considering introducing voluntary national identity cards in the wake of 9/11. British civil rights groups are not pleased. During the emergency debate in the Commons, Conservative MP Dr. Julian Lewis also urges that national identity cards be introduced, saying “If all this sounds draconian it is precisely because those are the measures that open societies have to take when they are under attack.”     [bbc.Sep.14.2001 / gdn.Sep.15.2001]

==Irish activist Maggie Beirne comments on the American reaction to 9/11: “I sympathize with Americans. It's natural to want to hang (terrorists) and flog them. But emergency powers lead to abuse of power, fueling conflicts. The very response to terrorism actually feeds it.”      [ap.Sep.14.2001]

==Scores of civil liberties advocates representing a broad spectrum of groups cram into the ACLU headquarters building in Washington to work out a strategy for opposing the tide of draconian security laws moving through Congress.  Despite the very heavy turnout, the participants are subdued and “a little overwhelmed by the magnitude of the task.” After a debate, the meeting agrees on a ten-point statement that’s signed by over 150 groups, including religious organizations, gun owners, police, and conservative activists. The statement has little or no impact on Congress or the administration.      [wap.2002.10.27]


==The Federal Reserve reports that US industrial production fell in August for the 11th consecutive month, extending the longest stretch of weakness since 1960. American industry is operating at only 76.2% capacity, its poorest performance since 1983, and already a million manufacturing jobs have been lost. The nation has avoided recession despite rising unemployment thanks to consumer spending, but many experts believe the 9/11 attacks will further undermine the already declining level of consumer confidence. (see Sep.13) Sung Won Sohn, chief economist at Wells Fargo, glumly predicts "For the foreseeable future, the economy is clearly going to be weaker." On brighter notes, retail sales showed moderate gains and the core inflation rate declined slightly.      [ap.Sep.15.2001]

==European markets drop sharply Friday afternoon on expectations of war in Afghanistan and a plunge in the New York Stock Exchange when it resumes trading on Monday. The dollar falls against the euro and the yen. Japan’s Nikkei Index rebounds somewhat from lows earlier in the week, but other Asian markets show a mixed performance. There are worries that the looming American recession will lead to a severe slump in Asian exports.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]
==The Federal Reserve sets up more swap arrangements to bolster the international financial system, extending $30 billion in resources to British banks and $10 billion to Canadian banks. See Sep.13      [ap.Sep.15.2001]
==The SEC relaxes some trading rules, hoping to ease an anticipated sharp drop in stock prices when US markets reopen on Monday.      [nyt.Sep.15.2001]
==The New York Times prints a laudatory article on SEC Chairman Harvey Pitt, calling him “a voice of calm.”  Pitt resigned in disgrace a little over a year later.      [nyt.Sep.14.2001]

==Oil prices rise sharply, after enjoying relative stability on Wednesday and Thursday.      [cnn.Sep.14.2001]

==The airline industry crisis is growing more ominous. An industry economist says the nation’s carriers have only enough cash to last for about 30 days. American Airlines is planning to cut a fifth of its flights, and airlines are already canceling some of their $35 billion in aircraft and engine orders from Boeing, General Electric, and Pratt & Whitney. House Democratic leader Gephardt warns “There are two to three airlines which could be close to bankruptcy." Congress is working quickly on a relief bill for airlines that will grant $2.5 billion in direct aid and $12.5 billion in loan guarantees, dwarfing the assistance the Federal government gave to Chrysler in 1980. Some Congressmen were also seeking financial aid for insurance firms, the New York Stock Exchange, and other hard-hit businesses.      [cnn.Sep.14.2001 / wap.Sep.14.2001 / nyt.Sep.15.2001 / ap.Sep.14.2001]
=The situation is worsening among European and Asian carriers as well. In Australia, massive debts force the abrupt closing of Ansett, the nation’s second largest airline, leaving tens of thousands passengers stranded in the southwest Pacific, and threatening to throw thousands of air industry employees out of work. An Australian union official says “Mass confusion is reigning, the civil aviation industry is in meltdown.”      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]

==A preliminary study estimates that the 9/11 attacks will cost the information technology and communications industries about $15.8 billion.      [cnn.Sep.14.2001]

==Credit rating agency Standard & Poor’s warns that it will be harder for developing countries to raise funds in international capital markets in the face of the uncertainty caused by 9/11.  Stock markets in many of these countries have plummeted since the attacks; the Bombay Stock Exchange, for example, falls to a 33-month low on Friday.      [bbc.Sep.14.2001]

==Rumors are circulating around Washington that oil industry lobbyists are pushing hard for Congress to authorize immediate drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.      [grist.Sep.15.2001]

==Tropical storm Gabrielle crosses central Florida.  It is the worst storm to hit the state’s west coast in 33 years, causing flooding and massive power outages, but news coverage is largely drowned out by the aftermath of 9/11.      [lat.Sep.20.2001 / noaa.2001]

9/11 Intro

September 13, 2001       September 15, 2001