The 1987 Intifada


Keys to Symbols


==Apr.15 > [
] During an Iranian-Kurdish offensive in northern Iraq, Baghdad attacks 20 Kurdish villages with chemical weapons.  The US government is becoming disgusted with Iraq’s gas warfare, but continues its alignment with Saddam. See Mar.16.1988       [hiro2 / wap.Dec.30.2002]

==Apr.17-24 > [
X] In his first (and perhaps only) experience of combat, bin Laden and 50 jihadis under his command fortify the heights at Jaji near the Pakistani border, and hold off 200 Soviet troops in a week of tough fighting before pulling back. Jihadi leader Abdullah Azzam and future 9/11 planner Khalid Sheikh Mohammed are said to have fought at Jaji.      [berg / hiro1 / mcder]

==Apr.--- > [
X] Muslim extremist mujahadeen leader Hekmatyar stages a raid into Tajikstan, expanding the Afghan war into Soviet territory.      [hiro1]

==Apr.--- > [
X] Islamists make serious gains in Egyptian national elections, despite flagrant vote-rigging by the desperate Mubarak regime.      [hiro1]

==May.17 > [
] An Iraqi fighter plane hits the frigate USS Stark with two Exocet missiles, killing 37 crewmembers.  At this time, the US and the Iraqis are still on good terms and the attack is probably a mistake.

==Jun.02 > [
X] After an extensive review, a task force chaired by Vice President Bush reports that the current provisions for combatting terrorism are entirely "sound," despite evidence of weakness in airport security and other areas. There is no further attempt to reform counterterrorism policy for the next eight years.     [naftali]

==Jul.31 > [
] A large demonstration by Iranian pilgrims in Mecca leads to a riot in which 402 are killed.       [hiro2]

==Nov.--- > [
X] Terrorist leader Abu Nidal executes hundreds of his own men, including some of his most senior associates. Hundreds more members of his ANO organization are killed by the end of 1988, and many other followers defect. Some defectors form a counter-group, which is engaged in a war with the ANO by 1990. These bloody convulsions are indirectly orchestrated by the CIA's Counterterrorism Center - assisted by the PLO, the Jordanians, and the Israelis - who have been feeding Abu Nidal bogus intelligence designed to inflame his paranoia. The ANO has been one of the world's most dangerous terrorist organizations for years, but it never recovers from these self-inflicted wounds.      [harc / naftali]

==Dec.08 > [
] The first intifada begins: Palestinians rise against Israeli authority first in Gaza and then in the West Bank.      [lmd]

== -------- > [
X] Bin Laden has contact with the Egyptian group Al Jihad and its leader al-Zawahiri.  Under their influence he begins to talk of using the mujahedeen training camps to create an organization for global jihad that will overthrow Arab governments and attack their Western supporters.      [berg / nyt.Jan.14.2001]

== -------- > [
XX] Militant Islamists are becoming active in America.  Mustafa Shalabi opens the Alkhifa Center in Brooklyn, recruiting Muslim volunteers for the Afghan war, and cultivating links to the MAK and - after 1988 - to the newly formed al-Qaeda.  See Mar.01.1991       [berg]

==Feb.--- > [
] As the Soviet Union relaxes its grip, ethnic unrest begins to break out in the Caucasus.       [wall]

==Mar.16 > [
] Shortly after Iranian forces and Kurdish rebels capture the Kurdish city of Halabja, the Iraqis bomb the town with nerve gas.  An estimated 4000 people are killed, mostly civilians.      [hiro2]

==Apr.--- > [
X] Around this time, while writing that the jihadis who'd fought in Afghanistan need to act as the vanguard of the Islamist movement, bin Laden's mentor Azzam coins the phrase al qaeda al-sulbah ('the strong foundation').  See Aug.11     [911cm / obs.Jul.13.2003]

==Apr.16-Jun > [
] Iraq launches a series of successful offensives against Iran, frequently using mustard gas and nerve gas.  At the same time, the US intensifies its low-level naval conflict with Iran, which has been underway since 1987.       [hiro2]

==May.15 > [
] Soviet troops begin to withdraw from Afghanistan, as part of a peace accord reached in February with the US and Pakistan. But Pakistan ignores its part of the bargain and continues to openly aid the mujahadeen.       [hiro1 / wall]

==Jul.03 > [
] The cruiser USS Vincennes shoots down an Iranian airliner, mistaking it for a fighter plane.  All 290 passengers on the airliner are killed.   [hiro2]

==Aug.11 > [
X] Bin Laden holds a meeting in Peshawar to discuss “the establishment of a new military group.”  This is probably the formation of Al Qaeda.      [ap.Feb.19.2003]

==Aug.17 > [
] Pakistani military dictator Zia ul-Haq is killed in a suspicious plane crash, along with gifted American ambassador Arnold Raphel. Zia had cooperated with the US against the Russians in the Afghan War, but he had greatly encouraged the spread of Islamist extremism in Pakistan during his 11 years in power.     [clarke]

==Aug.20 > [
] The Iran-Iraq War ends, as a cease-fire agreement goes into effect.  The eight-year war has been arguably the longest conventional war of the 20th Century.  There have been over a million casualties, and the direct and indirect costs run over a trillion dollars.  Both nations are exhausted, and Iraq has run up an immense foreign debt.       [hiro2]

==Dec.21 > [
X] Pan Am Flight 103 explodes over Lockerbie, Scotland, killing 270 people in the plane and on the ground. In 1990 investigators link the bombing to Libya. A Libyan intelligence agent is convicted of the crime in 2001 and the Libyan government formally accepts responsibility a couple years later.      [naftali]

== ------- > [
] The Washington-based Center for Security Policy (CSP) is established.  In the 1990s, CSP and the older, closely linked Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA) become major neoconservative advocacy groups for a much more aggressive US foreign policy, especially in the Middle East.  Both groups have strong ties to the hawkish Israeli Likud Party and to the American defense industry.  CSP/JINSA members and advisers include Richard Perle, Michael Ledeen, Douglas Feith, Elliott Abrams, and many others who will be highly influential in shaping foreign policy in the second Bush administration.      [csp / nat.Aug.15.2002]

== late 1980s > [
X] Kashmir begins to destabilize.  Supported by Pakistan, Muslim veterans of the Afghan war begin launching terrorist attacks against Indian troops and authorities.      [berg]

==Jan.20 > [
] George H. W. Bush is inaugurated as President of the United States.

==Feb.14 > [
X] The Ayatollah Khomeini issues a fatwah calling for the assassination of Salman Rushdie, accusing the novelist of defaming Islam.  Rushdie survives.      [wall]

==Feb.15 > [
] The last Russian forces leave Afghanistan - but for the time being, the US and the Saudis continue to fund the mujahadeen.      [hiro1]

==Feb.18 > [
X] Hamas makes its first attack on an Israeli, killing a soldier.  Originally formed by the conservative Muslim Brotherhood in 1978 as a charitable organization, around the mid-1980s Hamas began to form armed cells and to target Palestinian criminals and dissidents.  During the 1990s, it becomes one of the most dangerous Palestinian terrorist groups.      [ict]

==Mar.21-Jan.20.1993 > [
] Dick Cheney serves as Secretary of Defense, and stoutly resists calls to cut military spending despite the fading away of the Cold War.  Cheney appoints Paul Wolfowitz as Undersecretary for Policy.  Under Cheney and Wolfowitz, Pentagon policy staff is “a refuge for Reagan-era hardliners,” in the words of Colin Powell.  See Feb.1992       [defl / nyrb.Sep.26.2002]

==Spring > [
] Encouraged by Pakistan, the mujahadeen launch a full-scale offensive against Jalalabad, intended to bring down the pro-Soviet Kabul government. The offensive stalls in bloody fighting, straining the anti-Russian alliance.      [mcder]

==Jun.03 > [
X] The Ayatollah Khomeini dies of cancer at the age of 86.  His funeral sets off an outburst of mass hysteria.      [hiro2]

==Jun.30 > [
X] An Islamist military junta seizes power in Sudan.      [hiro1]

==Jun-Dec. > [
] Communist power collapses in Eastern Europe.

==Jul.--- > [
X] In Afghanistan, fighting erupts between the Pushtun Islamist Hekmatyar and the more moderate Tajik leader Massoud. The mujahadeen forces begin to break up along ethnic lines, despite bin Laden’s advice that they stay united.      [hiro1]

==Oct.01 > [
] Colin Powell becomes Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.      [defl]

==Fall > [
X] Sudanese leader Turabi invites bin Laden to relocate his organization to Sudan. By 1990, bin Laden's agents are buying property in the country.     [911cm]

==Nov.01 > [
X] Bin Laden reportedly bribes Pakistani legislators in an unsuccessful attempt to oust the relatively liberal Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto.      [berg]

==Nov.24 > [
XX] In an unsolved murder, jihadi leader Abdullah Azzam and his two sons are killed by a bomb while on their way to Friday prayers in Peshawar. Most of Azzam’s MAK is absorbed into bin Laden’s al-Qaeda organization.      [berg]
=Around this time, foreign veterans of the Afghan war (often called 'Afghan Arabs') are returning to their homes, and are forming extremist groups throughout the Islamic world.       [nyt.Jan.14.2001]

==spring > [
X] Bin Laden leaves Afghanistan and returns to Saudi Arabia.  He soon becomes a popular speaker, denouncing America and warning of an attack by Saddam Hussein.      [hiro1 / berg]

==May.--- > [
XX] The start of Islamist terrorist activity in America.  Sheikh Omar Abdal Rhaman, a leading Egyptian extremist and an affiliate of al-Qaeda, arrives in Brooklyn.  The blind sheikh was issued visas - at least one by a CIA officer - despite being on the State Department’s terrorist watch list.  The US government later blamed the blunder on computer error.  Rhaman will be involved in a number of terrorist schemes, culminating in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. See Nov.05.1990 and Mar.01.1991      [vv.Mar.30.1993 / berg]

==Jun.12 > [
X] In Algerian local elections, an Islamist fundamentalist party wins control of most municipal and provincial assemblies.  Algeria begins to destabilize.      [wall]

==Jul.25 > [
] After months of deteriorating American-Iraqi relations and at the height of a crisis between Iraq and Kuwait, Saddam Hussein meets with US Ambassador April Glaspie.  Glaspie tells Saddam that America has “no opinion” on his quarrel with Kuwait.  Although her comments accurately reflect US policy, Glaspie is later scapegoated for the Bush administration’s unexplained failure to clearly warn Saddam against attacking Kuwait.      [nyt.Sep.23.1990 / wap.Dec.30.2002 / abur]

==Aug.02 > [
] President Bush unveils a new military deployment policy.  With the collapsing Soviet Union becoming less of a threat, he plans to use US forces more flexibly, so as to be able to respond to unexpected threats from any part of the world.  American strategy is quietly shifting from preventing Soviet dominance to preserving US preeminence.      [harp.Oct.2002]

==Aug.02 > [
] Iraq invades Kuwait - the (first) Gulf War, to 1991.  By Aug.04, Iraqi forces have overrun Kuwait and are massing on the Saudi border.      [wall]

==Aug.06 > [
X] Threatened by an Iraqi invasion, King Fahd reluctantly invites US troops into Saudi Arabia after meeting with an American delegation headed by Cheney and Schwarzkopf. The same day, Prince Sultan politely declines a proposal by Osama bin Laden that mujahadeen units be organized to drive the Iraqis from Kuwait. US troops begin to arrive in Saudi Arabia the next day.      [hiro1 / clarke]

==Aug.06 > [
] The UN Security Council imposes sanctions on Iraq.  Most Arab states oppose Iraq, but the PLO unwisely supports Saddam Hussein.      [lmd]

==Aug.17 > [
X] Saudi Islamist intellectual Shaikh Safar al Hawali denounces the presence of US troops as part of an American plot to control the Persian Gulf, the first step toward its goal of dominating the entire Muslim world.  Angry anti-American sermons by conservative Saudi ulamas are taped and widely circulated.      [hiro1]

==fall > [
] Operation Desert Shield: a massive buildup of US and coalition forces is underway near the Saudi-Iraqi frontier.  US forces eventually number 550,000.      [defl / hiro1]

==Nov.05 > [
X] El Sayyid Nosair shoots the violent anti-Arab Rabbi Meir Kahane after Kahane finishes a speech at a Manhattan hotel.  Nosair is quickly apprehended, preventing him from carrying out several other assassinations he was evidently planning. The Kahane murder is probably the first Islamist terrorist action carried out on American soil, but at the time US counterterrorism agencies are virtually unaware of the case. Nosair is an associate of the Islamist Sheikh Abdul-Rhaman, who will later be involved the the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.      [vv.Mar.30.1993 / naftali]

== ------- > [
] Its attention diverted by the conflict in the Gulf and the Soviet collapse, the US government is loosing interest in Afghanistan. As the former CIA station chief in Islamabad later said “Afghanistan was off the front burner… we got the hell out of there.”      [nyt.Jan.14.2001]

==Jan.17 > [
] Operation Desert Storm beginsThe US-led coalition opens a massive air offensive against Iraq two days after the expiration of the UN deadline for Iraq’s withdrawal from Kuwait.      [defl]
X] The US intelligence community fears that the outbreak of war will set off a wave of Iraqi-sponsored terrorist attacks within America. This does not happen.      [naftali]

==Jan.18 > [
] Iraq launches Scud missiles against Israel.      [wall]

==Jan.25 > [
] Iraq releases an immense oil slick into the Persian Gulf.  On Feb.22, it sets hundreds of Kuwaiti oil wells on fire - the last well is extinguished Nov.03.  These acts cause tremendous regional environmental damage.       [wall]

==Jan.26 > [
] President Barre is driven from Somalia as that country slides into chaos.       [wall]

==Feb.24 > [] US and coalition forces launch a ground offensive against Iraq - within four days, the Iraqis have been driven from Kuwait with heavy losses.  On Feb.28, Bush suddenly halts the offensive, although many of Saddam’s Republican Guard units remain intact.       [defl / wall]

==Mar.01 > [
XX] New York Islamist activist Mustafa Shalabi is stabbed to death in his home - his associate Sheikh Rhaman is widely suspected of being behind the unsolved murder.  Shalabi’s Brooklyn Alkhifa Center is soon taken over by al-Qaeda members, several of who will be involved in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.      [berg]

==Mar.01 > [
] Popular revolts against Saddam Hussein erupt among Shiites in the south and Kurds in the north.  Bush initially encourages the revolts, but soon abandons them.  By month’s end, Saddam has brutally reasserted his control over most of Iraq.  After the Iraq War in 2003, mass graves of Shiites and Kurds executed in 1991 are uncovered.     [wall]

==Mar.03 > [
] A formal truce is arranged between the US-led coalition and the Iraqis.  On Apr.06, a permanent cease-fire is agreed to.  Despite the end of the war, US forces remain permanently stationed in Saudi Arabia for reasons that are never clearly explained, but probably in part to prop up the Saudi monarchy.  Many Muslims are deeply affronted by the American military presence in Arabia.  The war costs Saudi Arabia about $45 billion, more than half its annual GDP, and badly damages the nation’s finances.  The personal wealth of the Saudi royal family is unaffected.       [defl / hiro1 / hiro4 / berg]

==Mar.17 > [
] The Serbian government of Slobodan Milosevic suspends the constitution of predominantly Muslim Albanian Kosovo.      [wall]

==Apr.17 > [
] Coalition forces enter northern Iraq to prevent Saddam from completely crushing the Kurds.      [wall]

==Apr.--- > [
X] Osama bin Laden departs from Saudi Arabia, permanently.  After a brief return to Afghanistan - where he becomes convinced the Saudis are sending hit-men after him - bin Laden relocates to Sudan and forms a close relationship with Hassan al-Turabi, the de facto ruler of the country.  Bin Laden develops a variety of large-scale commercial enterprises (ultimately unprofitable) that provide cover for his still hidden political agenda.  In his five years in Sudan, he becomes even more radicalized.  Meanwhile, al-Qaeda continues to operate training camps and other facilities in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and forms alliances with extremist Islamist groups throughout the world.    [hiro1 / berg / nyt.Jan.14&Sep.30.2001 / 911cm]

==mid.May > [
X] 400 Saudi religious leaders pass a petition to King Fahd, demanding an end to royal autocracy and corruption, along with the increased Islamization of the nation.  See May.1992.      [hiro1]

==Jun.25 > [
] Slovenia and Croatia declare independence, and the Yugoslav federation begins to disintegrate.  On Oct.15, Bosnia declares independence.  By then, fighting had broken out between Serbia and Croatia, the start of years of vicious ethnic wars in the region.      [wall]

==Jul.05 > [
X] The large, well-connected,  and thoroughly corrupt Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI), based in the United Arab Emirates, is closed down as a colossal banking scandal breaks.  One of the bank’s many shady activities was extensive money laundering for terrorist groups.      [bbc / lat.Jan.20.2002]

==Aug.19-21 > [
] A botched coup causes the collapse of communist authority in the USSR.  States in the Caucasus soon begin declaring independence.      [wall]

==Oct.30 > [
] The Madrid Conference opens.  Under pressure from the US and the Soviet Union, Israel and its Arab neighbors engage in bilateral talks for the first time.      [lmd]

==late 1991 or 1992 > [
X] Al-Qaeda and Iran informally agree to provide some mutual support.      [911cm]

==Dec.04 > [
X] Hezbollah releases Terry Anderson, the last of the American hostages it seized in the 1980s. The threat of terrorism seems to have receded, and there is talk of shutting down the CIA's Counterterrorism Center.      [naftali]

==Dec.25 > [
] Gorbachev resigns. The USSR officially ceases to exist by Dec.31.  The Soviet Central Asian republics become independent states. Without Soviet aid, Najibullah’s Kabul government is rapidly loosing ground to the Islamist-dominated mujahadeen.      [hiro1]

== ------- > [
X] Training camps that are loosely affiliated with al-Qaeda are appearing in remote areas of Yemen.     [berg]

==Jan.11 > [
X] The Algerian Army seizes control of the government and annuls the recent national election victory of the Islamist extremist FIS.  On Feb.09, the regime declares a state of emergency after rioting by fundamentalists.  The political FIS morphs into the guerilla Armed Islamic Group (GIA) and Algeria slides into a decade of brutal civil war.  According to some accounts, bin Laden helped fund the start-up of the GIA.      [ict / wall / nyt.Jan.14.2001]

==early 1992 > [
X] Al-Qaeda issues a fatwa calling for resistance against Western 'occupation' of Islamic lands.  US troops are specifically targeted for attack.       [911cm]

==Feb.--- > [
] Neoconservatives begin to advocate an ultra-aggressive American foreign policy.  After the collapse of the Soviet Union renders their traditional anti-communism obsolete, some neocons rethink their outlook on international affairs.  In Feb, neoconservative Defense officials Paul Wolfowitz and I. Lewis Libby finish the draft version of Defense Policy Guidance (DPG) begun by Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney, envisioning a drastically more assertive American foreign policy, with the US unilaterally using overwhelming military power to intimidate other nations, including allies, to secure access to Persian Gulf oil and other vital resources, and to thwart the development of any potential rival - by preemptive military action if necessary. The paper causes a storm of criticism when it’s leaked to the New York Times on Mar.08, and the final version that Cheney releases in Jan.1993 is toned-down, though still highly ambitious.  Most foreign policy experts in both parties reject the Cheney-Wolfowitz plan, but the DPG is the first of several neoconservative proposals for reshaping international relations to promote strictly American interests, and an early step toward the belligerent foreign policy the US will adopt after 9/11.  Years later, an article in Harper’s put it bluntly: “The Plan is for the United States to rule the world.”  Wolfowitz and Libby will both occupy senior positions in George W. Bush’s Defense Department.  See Sep.2000       [harp.Oct.2002 / nyrb.Sep.26.2002 / nyt.Mar.02.2003]

==Mar.02 > [
] Ethnic violence breaks out in Sarajevo.  Bosnia begins to break down.      [wall]

==Apr.16 > [
] Led by the moderate Massoud, the mujahadeen occupy Kabul as Russian-backed President Najibullah takes refuge in the UN office.  This ends the long struggle between Afghan Marxists and Islamists, intensified by foreign intervention.  Roughly a million Afghans have died in the conflict since 1979… but Afghanistan’s ordeal is far from over.   See Aug.     [rubin / hiro1]

==May.14 > [
X] Islamist extremists murder 13 Coptic Christians near Asyut in Egypt’s worst sectarian violence in a decade.  The nation’s simmering religious unrest begins to move toward a crisis.      [hiro1]

==May.--- > [
X] The Saudi regime dissolves the reformist Committee for the Defense of Legitimate Rights and arrests its leaders - one co-founder is eventually beheaded.  A pro-government cleric comments “Criticism that leads to destabilization of society constitutes revolt and is unacceptable in Islam.”  More intellectuals are arrested in September, and crackdowns continue into 1994  Although the CDLR was relatively liberal, many fundamentalists are angered by its suppression and openly split with the pro-regime religious establishment.      [hiro1]

==Summer > [X] 24-year-old architecture student Mohamed el-Amir Atta moves from Egypt to Hamburg and pursues graduate studies in urban planning. In this foreign environment, he becomes more devoutly Islamic. People who encounter him in the early to mid 1990s often find him disagreeable, but do not regard him as an extremist. See Winter 1995-1996      [mcder / lat.Jan.27&Sep.01.2002]

==Jun.23 > [
] Yitzhak Rabin defeats the conservative Likud and forms Israel’s first Labour government since 1977.      [lmd]

==Aug.13 > [
] The UN condemns the Serbs’ ‘ethnic cleansing’ policy in Bosnia.     [wall]

==Aug.27 > [
] The southern no-fly zone is imposed on Iraq.      [wall]

==Aug.--- > [
] Tensions between rival mujahadeen factions break out in open conflict.  Islamist extremist Hekmatyar shells Kabul, which until now had escaped damage in the Afghan wars - thousands are killed and a large part of the city wrecked.  The bloody infighting is renewed in the fall and winter. By Feb.1993, a Guardian reporter is describing “not just breakdown of law and order, but disintegration of society” in Afghanistan.  Kabul’s population falls by 75% to under 500,000.  See Jan.01.1994       [hiro1]

Ramzi Yousef

==Sep.01 > [
X] Ramzi Yousef arrives in New York intending to destroy the World Trade Center, which a boyhood friend had suggested as a suitable target. Yousef, whose real name is Abdul Basit Abdul Karim, is an ethnic Baluchi with a degree in electrical engineering who has been trained in bombmaking in the jihad camps near Peshawar. He is evidently acting as a sort of freelance terrorist. Yousef disembarks at JFK wearing "a bright orange, brown, and olive green three-piece silk ensemble with flowing sleeves and ballooning harem pants," but without an entry visa. He is arrested at the airport, and then immediately released due to lack of detention space.  See Feb.26.1993       [mcder / lat.Sep.01.2002]

==Oct.01 > [
X] Egyptian Islamists begins a series of attacks on tourists.      [hiro1]

==Dec.06 > [
] Hindu extremists demolish a 16th Century mosque, setting off bloody sectarian violence in India.      [wall]

==Dec.09 > [
] US troops arrive in Somalia, initially to protect relief efforts.       [berg / wall]

==late.Dec > [
X] Two hotels in Aden are bombed, killing a tourist and a hotel worker.  The real targets were probably US soldiers who had just left for Somalia.  Years later, the US government implicates bin Laden, in what appears to be his first act of anti-American terrorism.      [berg / mih.Sep.21.2001]

==Dec.--- > [
X] Egyptian President Mubarak vows to crush the hardline Islamist groups - which are estimated to have 10,000 core members - and launches a severe policy of mass arrests and brutal interrogations.  The situation deteriorates into 1993.      [hiro1]

== ------- > [
X] The first reports reach the Saudi government that bin Laden is associating with Islamic terrorist groups.   He begins calling for the overthrow of the House of Saud.      [nyt.Dec.27.2001]

== ------- > [
X] Al-Qaeda establishes a cell in Kenya.      [911cm]

==1992-late 1990s > [
X] Hundreds of Muslim veterans of the Afghan war fight in Bosnia, actively assisted by al-Qaeda. A few al-Qaeda cells were still operating in Bosnia as late as 2002.     [berg / clarke]

==early.1990’s > [X] Al-Qaeda discusses procuring chemical weapons with a Sudanese army officer. And perhaps around this time, bin Laden is ripped off for $1.5 million when a Sudanese officer sells him fake weapons-grade uranium.      [berg / 911cm]

==early.1990’s > [
X] About this time, Islamist terrorist cells quietly begin to form throughout Europe, often established by Afghan war veterans.  See Mar.1995      [nyt.Jan.14.2001]


Text Symbols

[] = The Levant: Israel, Palestine,
         Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Turkey

[X]  = Non-Islamist Terrorism

[] = Egypt and North Africa

[X] = Islamist Extremists

[] = The Persian Gulf Region and Arabia

[X] = Islamist Terrorism (not al-Qaeda)

[] = Central and Southern Asia

[X] = al-Qaeda and bin Laden

[] = Africa

[X] = The 9/11 Operation

[] = Europe and the Soviet Union

[X] = Counterterrorism

[] = The United States


This chronology is intended as an outline of developments related to 9/11 and its aftermath, and tends to focus on unrest, war, and terrorism.  It is not meant to be a comprehensive timeline of Middle East history.


9/11 Intro          Source Abbreviations


1948-1978      1979-1986      1993-1995      1996-1998      1999-2000

2001, Jan-Jun      2001, Jul-Sep.10

September 11, 2001, Part I      September 11, 2001, Part II

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