A young revolutionary shouts out
"Awake quickly!!  Awake quickly!!  Let all you brothers rouse your spirits,
and uses his writing brush to sweep the old regime from the face of the earth.
Cartoon from the radical People's Sigh, May, 1909.

3. The First Chinese Revolution, 1911

Imperial Regime.Radicals.
==Jan.02 > The Manchus strictly outlaw all student political activity

==Jan.21 > A policeman kills a rickshaw driver in British concession of Hankow, provoking local protests and unrest
==Jan.22 > British troops fire on striking rickshaw drivers in Hankow, killing over ten

Radicals.Military Unrest.
==Jan.30 > Military revolutionaries in the middle Yangtze provinces establish the ‘Literary Study Society’ from the remnants of earlier secret groups

Drugs.Imperial Regime.
==Jan.--- > The Imperial regime issues a further tough edict against opium production

==Feb.08 > Female silk workers strike in Shanghai - on Aug.05, the strike is renewed

==Feb.24 > The use of torture in courtroom cross-examinations is abolished

==Feb.--- > The Revolutionary Alliance moves to coordinate radical activity in Wuhan in central China

Business.International.Railroad Crisis.
==Mar.24 > China contracts a ten million yuan Japanese loan for railroad construction - ~rapid increases in foreign investment in China, encouraged by the Manchus: 93% of China’s railroads are foreign dominated - ~rising public outrage

==Mar.30 > The Chinese minister to Italy suggests that all schools teach Mandarin to standardize the Chinese language

==Apr.03-28 > An International Plague Conference is held in Mukden - the origins of the Chinese public health system

==Apr.15 > China contracts a £10 million loan from a four-power consortium for monetary reform and the development of Manchuria

Radical Unrest.
==Apr.08 > After a Manchu general is assassinated, martial law is declared in Canton
==Apr.23-27 > The government begin to uncover Revolutionary Alliance plans for a rising
==Apr.27 > The premature Huang Hua Kang revolt in Canton is bungled [530.PM]; scores of Revolutionary Alliance activists are executed
==end of April > Reconsidering its strategy, the Revolutionary Alliance decides to concentrate its efforts on the Middle Yangtze area
==May.03 > A Progressive Association meeting in Wuchang vows to intensify revolutionary activity in central China

==Apr.--- > Seventeen-year-old Mao arrives in Changsha in Hunan to attend secondary school - ~he reads his first newspaper, first hears of Sun Yat-sen, cuts off his queue, and makes his first public political statement with a muddled poster calling for a republic

Imperial Regime.
==May.08 > The Regent replaces the Grand Council with a cabinet dominated by the Imperial family

==May.08 > Britain agrees to end opium imports into China by 1917 - ~anti-opium agreements with the powers will be rendered a dead letter after the overthrow of the Manchus

Railroad Crisis.
==May.09 > An Imperial decree to nationalize the main railroads is issued - ~vehement protests from central Chinese merchants - the railroad crisis begins
==May.20 > The Regent signs a £10 million foreign loan for the Hukuang (Szechwan-Hankow) and Canton-Hankow railroads
==May.22 > The government orders a crackdown in Hunan against railroad protesters

==May.--- > The Chinese General Staff is inaugurated, headed by the Regent’s brother

==Jun.04 > The Reformist Constitutionalist Friends Club is established

Railroad Crisis.
==Jun.17 > The Imperial government promises to indemnify central Chinese railroad  investors - very little is offered to investors from Szechwan - Szechwan gentry form the Railway Protection League to oppose nationalization

==Jun.--- > A national commission makes formal proposals for standardizing the Chinese language

==Jul.13 > The Central China Bureau of the Revolutionary Alliance is established in Shanghai under the dynamic Sung Chiao-jen - the pace of revolutionary activity quickens

Radical Unrest.
==Aug.13 > Revolutionaries attempt the assassination of naval commander Li

Railroad Crisis.
==Aug.24 > An emotional demonstration in Chengtu over the railroad crisis leads to a merchants’ strike - a local militia is organized - the situation in Szechwan is growing very tense
==end.August > Rural rebellions in Szechwan
==Sep.02 > The government orders troops from Hupei to Szechwan to restore order
==Sep.07 > Protest leaders in Szechwan are arrested - the police fire on demonstrators in Chengtu, killing about forty
==Sep.08 > Tens of thousands of protesters gather near Chengtu to form the Railway Protection Army - ~the rural revolts in Szechwan intensify

==Sep.12 > The lower Yangtze overflows, forming an 80 by 35 mile lake, drowning 100,000 people and causing the starvation of 100,000 more: some of the worst flooding ever recorded in the region

==Sep.18-22 > Shanghai dockworkers strike

Radicals.Military Unrest.
==Sep.24 > The ‘Progressive Association’ and the military ‘Literary Institute’ unite to prepare for a revolution in Wuhan in central China
==Sep.24 > Unrest among troops in Wuhan - local units are under surveillance

First Revolution.
==Oct.07 > The revolutionary Central Executive Committee reports that the situation is unfavorable for revolts
==Oct.09 > Accidental bomb explosions in Hankow alert the government to an impending revolt in the tri-city area of Wuhan (Wuchang, Hankow, and Hanyang) on the middle Yangtze; the police obtain a list of local revolutionaries - wave of arrests 
==Oct.10 > Three activists are executed in Wuhan [morning] - local revolutionaries fear that mass reprisals are imminent - engineering troops mutiny in Wuchang and seize the arsenal [evening]: THE ‘DOUBLE TEN’ RISING, THE START OF THE 1911 CHINESE REVOLUTION
==Oct.11 > Rebels secure most of Wuchang [dawn] after the governor and his forces panic and flee - the Wuchang rebels proclaim the ‘Central Florescent Republic’ and name the unwilling moderate General Li Yüan-hung as Military Governor [afternoon]
==Oct.12 > The Wuhan rebels send telegrams calling for a general revolt [morning] - rebel troops seize Hanyang in Wuhan and its arsenal [morning] - chaos in Hankow, until rebel troops restore order on Oct.14 - the Wuhan insurgents proclaim that anyone interfering with commerce will be beheaded; grateful merchants back the revolution
==Oct.12 > Sun Yat-sen first learns of the Wuhan revolt, from a newspaper in Denver
==Oct.12 > The Hupei provincial assembly declares itself to be independent of the Manchus - local and provincial governments begin going over to the revolution
==Oct.12 > The Governor-General and the army commander of Hupei are sacked by the Imperial government - the Regent sends two Manchu divisions against the Wuhan rebels

Fighting near Hankow, October 1911

International.First Revolution.
==Oct.12 > The revolutionaries urge the foreign consuls in Hankow to declare neutrality
==Oct.13 > The revolutionaries in Wuchang pledge to respect all foreign agreements

Japanese Relations.First Revolution.
==Oct.13 > The Manchus ask Japan for arms - ~Japan decides to supply arms to both sides

First Revolution.
==Oct.13 > After hesitating for two days, Li Yüan-hung accepts the post of revolutionary military governor in Wuchang
==Oct.14 > The revolutionaries fully control the three cities of Wuhan (Wuchang, Hankow, and Hanyang) 
==Oct.14 > The Regent reluctantly appoints his old rival Yüan Shih-k’ai Governor-General and military commander of Hupei and Hunan - Yüan declines
==Oct.15 > Revolutionaries take Hwangkang (Hwangchow), down the Yangtze from Wuhan

International.First Revolution.
==Oct.18 > The foreign consuls of the powers in Hankow (Wuhan) declare neutrality

Japanese Relations.First Revolution.
==Oct.18 > The Japanese nationalist leader Uchida urges his government to act in China; the response of the Japanese government is equivocal

First Revolution.
==Oct.18 > Mutinous troops fail in an attempt to seize Changsha in Hunan - I-Chang, up the Yangtze from Wuhan, goes over to the rebels
==Oct.18 > The Manchus again urge Yüan to immediately take command against the rebels
==Oct.20 > As a prerequisite for taking command of Imperial forces, Yüan makes six demands on the Manchus (for personal power, reform, and amnesty for the revolutionaries)
==Oct.22 > Local army units revolt in Shensi province - hideous massacres of Manchus in the capital city of Sian
==Oct.22 > ‘New Army’ troops mutiny and easily seize Changsha [morning]: the revolutionaries control Hunan province

A teen-aged Mao Tse-tung, about 1911

Mao.First Revolution.
==Oct.22 > Seventeen-year-old Mao Tse-tung witnesses the revolution in Changsha - he soon joins the revolutionary army in Changsha (to Feb.1912) as an orderly and encounters the word ‘socialism’ for the first time

First Revolution.
==Oct.23 > Yüan begins making conciliatory comments about the revolutionaries
==Oct.24 > Kiukiang in Kiangsi joins the revolution (or Oct.23)

Japanese Relations.First Revolution.
==Oct.24 > Japanese cabinet meeting on China: uncertain support for Yüan and opposition to the revolutionaries

First Revolution.
==Oct.25 > A mass meeting in Canton repudiates the Manchus, co-opting the local government
==Oct.27 > The Regent is compelled to appoint Yüan Imperial commander in chief, but ignores his other demands - Yüan refuses to accept the post, but secures key commands for his cronies
==Oct.27 > The National Assembly submits ‘four demands’ to the Imperial Court for reform and amnesty
==Oct.27-29 > Imperial forces retake Hankow
==Oct.28 > Revolutionary Alliance leader Huang Hsing arrives in Wuchang and takes command of the Hupei rebel forces
==Oct.29 > Officers of the 20th Division, stationed north of Peking, demand reforms - plots to attack the capital
==Oct.29 > Shansi province declares itself independent, threatening Peking from the west - warlord Yen Hsi-shan keeps control of Shansi to about 1949 - the Manchus in the capital are panicking
==Oct.30 > The Regent yields to revolutionary demands - decrees cabinet reform, amnesties political prisoners, authorizes the Assembly to draft a constitution, and recognizes the revolutionaries as a legal political group - Manchu power rapidly crumbles
==Oct.30-31 > Rebels seize power in Yunnan province
==Oct.31 > The Revolutionary Military Governor of Hunan is assassinated by local anti-Manchu elites - ~splits between moderate and radical rebels
==Oct.31 > Local army forces rebel at Nanchang in Kiangsi

Communists.First Revolution.
==end.Oct > The young Chu Teh leads a rebel invasion of Szechwan from Yunnan

First Revolution.
==Nov.01 > The Manchu cabinet is dissolved - Yüan is provisionally appointed prime minister by the Court, and sets out for the south as military commander
==Nov.02 > Army rebels establish a military government in Kiangsi province
==Nov.02 > Sun Yat-sen sails from New York for Britain and France, where he drums up support for the Chinese Revolution
==Nov.03 > The Regent accepts the Assembly’s draft constitution (‘The Nineteen Articles’)
==Nov.03 > The Imperial governor of Kiangsu province repudiates the Manchus - the Mongols declare independence from China
==Nov.03-04 > An anti-Manchu army revolt gains control of Shanghai
==Nov.04 > An anti-Manchu army revolt gains control of Kweichow province - Wu Lu-chen, Imperial commander at Shih-chia-chuang south of Peking, plots with the rebels

Chiang.First Revolution.
==Nov.04-06 > An anti-Manchu army revolt gains control of Hangchow in Chekiang - 25-year-old Chiang Kai-shek is among the rebel leaders

First Revolution.
==Nov.06 > Pro-revolutionary general Wu Lu-chen is assassinated [evening] by either the Manchus or by Yüan - ~Yüan rapidly purges those generals not in his Peiyang army clique
==Nov.07 > Kwangsi province repudiates the Manchus
==Nov.08 > Anwhei province repudiates the Manchus
==Nov.08 > The National Assembly in Peking elects Yüan Prime Minister
==Nov.09 > Moderate revolutionary leaders at Wuhan make an abortive call for a conference to organize a revolutionary provisional government
==Nov.09 > Kwangtung province repudiates the Manchus: reformer Ch’en Chiung-ming gains control in Canton - anti-Manchu army revolt in Fukien province
==Nov.11 > The Manchus confirm Yüan’s election as premier
==Nov.11 > The revolutionaries reject Yüan’s call for peace
==Nov.12 > The Chinese Navy comes over to the revolutionaries (or Nov.11)
==Nov.12 > The revolutionaries’ first offer to Yüan of the presidency of the Republic
==Nov.13 > Yüan triumphantly arrives in Peking
==Nov.13-17 > The Imperial Governor of Shantung briefly repudiates the Manchus
==Nov.15 > Provincial revolutionary leaders meet at Shanghai, and recognize Li Yuan-hang’s group at Wuchang as the central Chinese regime - ~Li again calls for delegates to form a provisional government
==Nov.15 Yüan assumes the office of Imperial premier - on Nov.16, he announces his cabinet - Yüan effectively controls the Peking government

International.First Revolution.
==Nov.17 > The revolutionaries confirm their pledge to respect foreign agreements

First Revolution.
==Nov.17 > The rebels launch an attack from Hanyang against the Imperial forces
==Nov.18-27 > Imperial forces launch an offensive against Hanyang
==late.Nov > ~After sending the loyal Imperial Guard from Peking, Yüan gains complete military control in the capital and over the Manchu Court
==Nov.27 > Chengtu, capital of Szechwan, declares itself independent of the Manchus - the local Imperial commander is murdered by his own troops
==Nov.27 > Imperial forces retake Hanyang after bitter fighting
==Nov.29 > On behalf of the Manchus, Yüan cables Wuchang agreeing to a truce - ~he seeks British mediation
==Nov.30 > A revolutionary conference in Hankow declares the Hupei military government to be the central military government

==Nov.--- > Chiang K’ang-hu establishes the feeble Chinese Socialist Party

==Nov.--- > Chinese customs revenues are handed directly over to foreign creditors

First Revolution.
==Dec.01 > After taking Purple Mountain, rebel forces dominate the Nanking area - on Dec.02, Imperial forces evacuate the city
==Dec.01-21 > A truce is in effect between revolutionaries and Imperial forces
==Dec.02 > Rebel delegates agree on an Organic Law for a provisional government - they offer the presidency to Yüan if he agrees to support the Republic
==Dec.04 > A revolutionary conference in Hankow decides on Nanking as the provisional capital
==Dec.05-18 > Peace talks in Hankow
==Dec.06 > At Yüan’s demand, Regent Ch’un is retired with a pension
==Dec.07 > The Empress Dowager gives Yüan full powers to negotiate with the rebels
==Dec.07 > A revolutionary edict abolishes pigtails and orders calendar reform - ~very widespread forced hair-queue cuttings by revolutionary troops: the traditional Chinese pigtail begins to disappear
==Dec.12 > Shantung province declares itself independent of the Manchus
==Dec.14 > The revolutionary conference reassembles in Nanking - disputes over the choice for president
==Dec.18 > The official peace talks reconvene in Shanghai
==Dec.20 > An agreement is reached in secret Shanghai talks between Yüan and the rebels: the Manchus are to be decently retired and replaced with a republic
==Dec.20 > An Imperial plot is uncovered in Canton - fierce revolutionary reprisals
==late.Dec > Hupei revolutionaries launch an expedition against Honan
==Dec.25 > Sun Yat-sen arrives in Shanghai from overseas
==Dec.29 > Sun Yat-sen is elected provisional president of the republic by the Nanking Conference - the ambitious Yüan is incensed, and breaks off negotiations
==Dec.29-Jan.1912 > At Luanchow, northeast of Peking, a revolt by Imperial troops is crushed

US Relations.First Revolution.
==Dec.31 > The New York Sun describes Sun Yat-sen as the “hidden spirit of strange secret societies” who has gained power through “underground passages of plot and intrigue the nature of which no Occidental could hope to understand.”

Japanese Relations.First Revolution.
==Dec-Feb.1912 > Japan makes four major weapons transfers to the Chinese rebels

International.First Revolution.
==Dec.--- > The powers present a note to the Chinese commissioners in Shanghai urging a rapid settlement to the Chinese crisis

==1911 > The Peking Gazette, the daily official Imperial news bulletin, ceases publication after nearly 1200 years, by far the longest run of any newspaper in world history

==1911 > The Provisional New Criminal Code is promulgated

Drugs.Crime.Japanese Relations.
==1911 > Japanese involvement in smuggling heroin and morphine into China


China, 1904-1914: Introduction   ///   (1) Attempts at Imperial Reform and the Rise of Chinese Radicalism, 1904-1907

(2) The Final Years of Imperial China, 1908-1910   ///  (4) The Birth of the Chinese Republic, 1912

(5) The Collapse of Parliamentary Government, 1913-1914   ///  Biographies and Glossary - Place Names