Sun Yat-sen, 1912

4. The Birth of the Chinese Republic, 1912

First Revolution.
==Jan.01 > THE CHINESE REPUBLIC IS ESTABLISHED - Sun Yat-sen is sworn in as Provisional President in Nanking - he immediately offers the office to Yüan, telegramming him that the presidency “is actually waiting for you” - China abandons the lunar calendar for the European solar calendar
==Jan.01 > Yüan has his officers publicly vow to oppose republicanism - the start of blatant military interference in politics
==Jan.02 > Yüan extorts 8000 gold ingots from the Imperial Treasury, supposedly for the army; he promptly sells them to foreign bankers
==Jan.03 > The Provisional Government of the Republic is established - Li Yuan-hung is named Provisional Vice-President
==Jan.03 > Manchu diplomats abroad urge the abdication of the Emperor
==Jan.03 > Yüan compels the throne to order leading Manchus to donate part of their wealth to the Imperial Treasury, which he controls

International.First Revolution.
==Jan.05 > Sun Yat-sen issues a manifesto listing the Republican program, including recognition of all Imperial treaties and a pledge to protect foreign interests

First Revolution.
==Jan.07 > Imperial troops revolt near Kuldja in western Sinkiang province - Sinkiang declares itself independent of the Manchus
==Jan.12 > Manchu nobles reject Yüan’s proposal that the Emperor abdicate

Chiang.First Revolution.
==Jan.14 > T’ao Ch’eng-chang is assassinated in Shanghai, probably arranged by Chiang Kai-shek under orders from Revolutionary Alliance leader Ch’en Ch’i-mei - decline of the Restoration Society

European Relations.First Revolution.
==mid.Jan > The French Minister to Peking urges the Manchus to abdicate

First Revolution.
==Jan.15 > Sun formally pledges that when the Manchus abdicate and Yüan supports the republic, Sun will resign as president in his favor
==Jan.16 > A revolutionary assassination attempt is made on Yüan in Peking
==Jan.17-22 > Imperial conferences: despite pressure from Yüan, Manchu nobles refuse to accept the Emperor’s abdication
==Jan.18 > Manchu nobles opposed to abdication and to Yüan form the Imperial Clan Party
==Jan.19 > Three cabinet members demand the Manchus abdication
==Jan.22 > Sun Yat-sen takes a harder line with Yüan, publicly demanding that he break with the Manchus - Yüan’s contacts with the revolutionaries are exposed

US Relations.First Revolution.
==Jan.22 > American troops occupy Tientsin

==Jan.25 > In revolutionary Szechwan, workers in the Chengtu arsenal attempt a strike - strike leaders are promptly beheaded by the revolutionary government

First Revolution.
==Jan.26 > The head of the Imperial Clan Party is assassinated by a revolutionary - Manchu opposition to Yüan is weakened
==Jan.27 > The Empress Dowager makes Yüan a marquis in recognition of his services to the crown - Yüan has his generals demand an immediate adoption of a republican government: Manchu resistance to abdication crumbles
==Jan.28 > The Revolutionary Conference in Nanking is formally reconvened as the National Council (the provisional parliament)
==Jan.30 > Former Regent Prince Ch’un urges immediate abdication

Japanese Relations.First Revolution.
==Jan-Feb > Japanese pay-offs to Sun Yat-sen, in hopes of future concessions

First Revolution.
==Feb.01 > The weeping Empress Dowager orders Yüan to negotiate abdication terms with the revolutionaries
==Feb.03 > An Imperial edict delegates power to Yüan
==Feb.06 > The revolutionary Nanking government and Yüan agree on abdication terms: the very young Emperor is to be allowed to live on in the imperial palace; the prerogatives of the Imperial family and the rights of national minorities (namely, the Manchus) are to be respected
==Feb.12 > THE LAST MANCHU EMPEROR ABDICATES: THE END OF THE CHINESE EMPIRE - Yüan is named as plenipotentiary to form a republican government; he pledges to support the republic, writing “Never again shall we allow the monarchial system to reappear in China.” (in four years, he will proclaim himself Emperor)

==Feb.13 > Sun Yat-sen tenders his resignation to the Legislature (effective Apr.01) and endorses Yüan as his successor so long as Yüan obeys the constitution and the capital is moved from Peking to Nanking
==Feb.14-15 > Yüan is elected Provisional President by the Nanking Assembly, which briefly chooses Peking as the new capital
==Feb.15 > The Assembly reverses itself and names Nanking as the new capital of the Republic - ~Sun tries to enforce the move; Yüan, supported by the Army and the foreign legations, resists leaving Peking
==Feb.21 > A Revolutionary Alliance conference in Tientsin fails to reunite the splintering party - ~the party increasingly consists only of Sun’s immediate followers

==Feb.25 > The first Chinese Boy Scout troop is formed in Wuchang

Military Unrest.
==Feb.27 > Troops mutiny in Hupei

Politics.Military Unrest.
Conservative Yüan successfully resists relocating to revolutionary Nanking:
==Feb.27 > A delegation arrives in Peking to escort Yüan to Nanking
==Feb.29-Mar.01 > Yüan stages army mutinies in Peking
==Mar.02 > Military unrest spreads to Paoting, southwest of Peking
==Mar.03 > Military unrest spreads to Tientsin
==Mar.03 > 2000 foreign troops arrive in Peking in response to Yüan’s mutinies
==Mar.06 > The cowed Nanking Assembly consents to Yüan ruling from Peking

==Mar.02 > Sun Yat-sen bans opium and the selling of human beings

==Mar.08 > Laws prevent Yüan from appointing cabinet members without the Senate’s approval - the restrictions are later disregarded by Yüan
==Mar.10 > Yüan is inaugurated as Provisional President in Peking

==Mar.11 > Sun and the Nanking Senate proclaim the new liberal provisional constitution - foot binding and corporal punishment is banned

==Mar.12 > Yüan receives a cash advance from a foreign consortium, in return for giving them a firm option on a massive ‘reorganization’ loan

==Mar.13 > Yüan appoints T’ang Shao-i as Prime Minister

==Mar.18 > T’ang attempts to borrow from an British-Belgian consortium; he clashes with Yüan and his creditors - on Apr.27, the loan is cancelled under international pressure

==Mar.19 > In the Senate, women demand equal rights to political action

==Mar.29 > Premier T’ang takes charge of the Nanking government upon the Senate’s approval of his cabinet list: Yüan supporters control the key interior and military ministries
==Mar.--- > The Revolutionary Alliance holds a congress and re-organizes as a political party, dominated by Sung Chiao-jen and the old right wing

Hong Kong.
==Mar.--- > Governor Lugard leaves Hong Kong

==Mar-spring.1913 > After leaving the revolutionary army, Mao Tse-tung spends a year in Changsha drifting from school to school and trying to pick a career - he considers becoming a lawyer, a policeman, a commercial expert, and a soap manufacturer (!!), among other options

==Apr.01 > Sun formally resigns as President of the Republic - Yüan officially becomes provisional President
==Apr.05 > The Nanking National Council votes to move the capital to Peking - the Manchu National Assembly is superseded - ~Yüan begins to weaken the cabinet system

Military Unrest.
==Apr.11 > Troops mutiny in Nanking
==mid.Apr > A military mob threatens the Hupei assembly over proposed tax cuts

==Apr.13 > Yüan publicly encourages intermarriage between nationalities

US Relations.
==Apr.17 > The US Congress congratulates China on adopting a republican form of government - ~rising American support for China

Finance.European Relations.
==Apr.27 > An Anglo-Belgian loan to China is cancelled after pressure from the other powers

==Apr.29 > The Nanking Assembly formally reconvenes in Peking

Military Unrest.
==Apr.--- > Violent street fighting in Canton between troops and militia forces recruited from pirates

==spring > The revolutionary government voluntarily disbands its large army, loosing leverage against Yüan

==May.05 > The conservative pro-Yüan Republican Party forms from nationalist factions - ~the Revolutionary Alliance and the Friends of the Constitution are splitting up into vaguely defined parties
==May.12 > Yüan prohibits private organizations from participating in politics

==May.17 > China contracts a 76 million tael loan from the Four Power Consortium

==May.--- > The Ministry of Education orders primary schools to replace instruction in the classics with technical and military training - on Sep.02-03, the Ministry sets guidelines

==Jun.08 > The flag of the Republic of China is adopted

==Jun.11 > Opium poppy planting is banned

Military Unrest.
==Jun.13 > A military mutiny erupts at Tsinan in Shantung, but is soon suppressed

==Jun.15 > Premier T’ang and Revolutionary Alliance ministers resign in protest against Yüan’s unauthorized dismissal of the military governor of Chihli (Hopei) - the cabinet is henceforth effectively under the direct control of Yüan
==Jun.27 > Yüan accepts T’ang’s resignation as Prime Minister
==Jun.29 > The Senate appoints Lu Cheng-hsiang as Prime Minister

==Jun.--- > Japan and Russia join a British-French-German-American banking consortium in a proposed loan to the Chinese government

==Jul.17 > Three Revolutionary Alliance activists are summarily executed in Hupei for plotting against the provincial government

Military Unrest.
==Jul.20 > Military mutiny at Anking in Anhwei province

Cabinet crisis:
==Jul.14 > Revolutionary Alliance ministers resign from the government
==Jul.18 > The ineffective Premier Lu submits his choice of ministers to parliament - they are angrily rejected
==Jul.23 > Yüan submits his own choice of ministers to the Senate
==Jul.24 > Numerous threats against members of the Senate if they fail to endorse Yüan’s cabinet choices
==Jul.26 > The Senate approves most of Yüan’s choices for the cabinet - ~the Republic is thoroughly dominated by Yüan and the military
==Jul.27 > The Senate censures Premier Lu, who stops acting as Prime Minister - ~Chao Ping-chün becomes de facto Premier

summer > The Chinese economy is recovering from the post-revolution downturn

Finance.European Relations.
==Jul.--- > Yüan secretly arranges a large loan from Austria

==Aug.01 > The Bank of China begins operations

Military Unrest.
==early.Aug > Troops in Hupei riot over demobilization

Sung Chiao-jen

==Aug.01 > Yüan names London Times correspondent G. E. Morrison as a political adviser
==Aug.10 > The general election of China’s first regular Parliament begins with the promulgation of electoral laws
==Aug.13 > The KMT (Kuomintang) is formed from the democratic wing of the Revolutionary Alliance and the Unified Republican Party - dominated by Sung Chiao-jen - Sun Yat-sen is named Chairman of the KMT

==Aug.15 > Yüan summarily executes two revolutionary generals in Peking, at the request of Governor Li of Hupei - the Parliament is alarmed

Military Unrest.
==Aug.24-25 > An Army mutiny devastates Tungchow near Peking

Finance.European Relations.
==Aug.30 > China signs the contract for a British loan of £10 million

==late.Aug-Sep > Sun Yat-sen visits Peking and meets Yüan, who shamelessly flatters him
==Sep.09 > Yüan placates Sun by appointing him Director of Railroads, for which there are no funds
==Sep.24 > Acting Premier Chao is formally appointed Prime Minister - ~the KMT warily makes a rapprochement with Yüan

Finance.European Relations.
==Sep.24 > China contracts with a Belgian syndicate to build the Loyang-Sian railroad and to obtain a 250 million franc loan

Military Unrest.
==Sep.24 > Koumintang troops mutiny near Wuhan, are ruthlessly crushed - ~Li’s rule in Hupei grows more despotic

==Oct.08 > Yüan bans gambling

==Oct.10 > The first National Day celebrations are held

Hong Kong.
==fall > Hong Kong Governor May’s coercive Boycott Prevention Ordinance gives British authorities broad powers against Chinese boycotters

==fall-winter > Mao Tse-tung pursues intensive independent study in the Changsha public library - he sees his first world map and reads a great deal of western political philosophy

Military Unrest.
==Dec.10 > A military mutiny erupts in Nanchang in Kiangsi province

==Dec.--- > The Kuomintang wins a strong victory in the Republic’s first elections (the results are announced in Jan 1913)

==Dec.--- > The Senate approves a proposed massive loan from the foreign powers

==1912 > China ceases to mint traditional base metal ‘cash’ coins

==1912-1914 > The Pailang revolt erupts in Honan, eventually spreading to other parts of central China


China, 1904-1914: Introduction   ///   (1) Attempts at Imperial Reform and the Rise of Chinese Radicalism, 1904-1907

(2) The Final Years of Imperial China, 1908-1910   ///   (3) The First Chinese Revolution, 1911

(5) The Collapse of Parliamentary Government, 1913-1914   ///   Biographies and Glossary - Place Names