The start of the Mexican Revolution:
the Serdán family opens a revolt in Puebla, Nov.18.1910


(2) The Maderista Revolt, Nov.1910-May.1911


November 1910

US Relations.
==Nov.04 > A Mexican is burnt to death by a mob in Rock Springs, Texas, provoking prolonged anti-American / anti-Díaz demonstrations in Mexico

Maderista Revolt.Villa.Orozco.
The preliminaries to Madero’s revolt:
==early.Nov. > Madero distributes his Plan de San Luis Potosí: the manifesto voids the Mexican election, proclaims Madero the provisional president, and pledges a revision of the laws - local Maderista leaders throughout Mexico are instructed to prepare for a revolt
==Nov.14 > In the first Maderista revolt in Chihuahua, villagers at Cuchillo Parado defeat a detachment of rurales
==Nov.15 > Pancho Villa slips out of Ciudad Chihuahua with fifteen men and makes for the mountains to the west
==Nov.16-18 > Wholesale arrests of Maderistas by the Díaz government
==Nov.17 > Villa attacks Chavarría hacienda
==Nov.18.[700.AM]-Nov 19 > A premature revolt breaks out in Puebla - the local Maderista leader Aquiles Serdán is executed after being captured by Federal forces
==Nov.18 > The conservative US Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson predicts that Díaz will easily suppress the revolutionary movement
==Nov.19 > Teamster Pascual Orozco assembles a Maderista band near Ciudad Chihuahua
==Nov.19-20 > Madero fails in an attempt to seize Ciudad Porfirio Díaz (Piedras Negras) and return to Mexico

Maderista Revolt.
==Nov.20 > THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION TO 1920 - Madero’s revolt erupts [600.PM]: widespread risings, especially in the north; most are quickly crushed, with the urban revolts rapidly failing - government forces carry out summary executions - the Maderista leader at Namiquipa in Chihuahua tells the rebels he has assembled that “Righteous causes are never defeated.” - ~within a few days, most observers assume that Madero’s revolt is spent, but the rebellion continues in Sonora and Chihuahua

Maderista Revolt.(south).Zapata.
==late.Nov > A Maderista group (including Emiliano Zapata) is formed at Villa Ayala in Morelos

Maderista Revolt.(north).Villa.Orozco.
The first weeks of the revolt in Chihuahua:
==Nov.21 > After being given a subordinate command over 28 men, Pancho Villa routes Federal forces at San Andrés
==Nov.27 > Orozco defeats the Federals at Pedernales - Villa is repelled in a reckless attack on Ciudad Chihuahua (the Battle of Tecolote), narrowly escaping disaster
==Dec.04 > Orozco takes Ciudad Guerrero - ~he issues a manifesto formally calling for the overthrow of Díaz - ~the rebels are gaining control of the mountains of western Chihuahua
==Dec.11 > In a pitched battle, government troops repel Orozco’s and Villa’s attack on the Northwest Railroad at Cerro Prieto - ~soon after, Villa is surprised at San Andrés, and is temporarily driven back into the Chihuahua mountains


December 1910

US Relations.Maderista Revolt.
==Dec.01 > The US declines requests from the Díaz government to arrest Madero

Far Left.(north).
==Dec.30 > Radical PLM leader Praxedis Guerrero is killed at Janos in Chihuahua


General 1910

Business.
==1910 > Lord Cowdray makes major oil strikes near Tampico - the start of large-scale Mexican oil production

Miscellaneous.
==1910 > Mexico City has the highest death rate of any major city in the world


January 1911

Maderista Revolt.(north).Orozco.
==Jan.02 > Orozco destroys a Federal column in Chihuahua - he sends the uniforms of the dead back to Díaz with the note “Here are the wrappers; send me some more tamales.”
==mid.Jan. > Federal troops are carrying out mass executions of rebel prisoners in Chihuahua

US Relations.Maderista Revolt.
==Jan.24-25 > The US sends cavalry to patrol the Texas border, but refuses to crack down on Maderista activity

Far Left.(northwest).
==Jan.29 > The anarchist PLM seizes Mexicali on the Mexican-US border

Maderista Revolt.(north).(northwest).
==end.Jan > ~The revolution will clearly not be easily defeated - Federal forces abandon the Chihuahua mountains - rebels threaten the rail link to Ciudad Juárez on the US border - ~rebels are gaining strength in the Sonoran hills

Díaz Regime.(north).
==end.Jan > Díaz removes the hated Terrazas-Creel clan from control of the Chihuahua government


February 1911

US Relations.Maderista Revolt.
==Feb.04 > The US government orders the arrest of Madero

Maderista Revolt.(north).Orozco.
==Feb.early > Federal reinforcements thwart Orozco’s attempt to take Ciudad Juárez, preventing Madero’s planned return to Mexico - Orozco declines to take orders from Madero

Maderista Revolt.(south).
==Feb.07 > Gabriel Tepepa leads the first revolt in Morelos, at Tlaquiltenango

Maderista Revolt.(north).Villa.
==Feb.07 > Villa fails in an attack on Ciudad Camargo in Chihuahua
==Feb.14 > Madero enters Mexico west of Ciudad Juárez, fleeing the threat of arrest by US authorities
==Feb.mid > Rebels take Cuencamé - ~the revolt is spreading to the Laguna area of eastern Durango and to southwest Coahuila


March 1911

Maderista Revolt.(north).
==Mar.06 > An attack by Madero is repelled at Casas Grandes in northwest Chihuahua - ~he soon after regroups at Bustillos and organizes a provisional government - ~the revolution begins accelerating throughout Mexico

US Relations.Maderista Revolt.
==Mar.06-07 > Taft orders 20,000 US troops to the Mexican border [night] - ~the US is loosing confidence in Díaz - rumors of American intervention are circulating

Maderista Revolt.(south).Zapata.
==Mar.11 > The main Maderista revolt in Morelos erupts at Villa de Ayala, supported by Zapata

Maderista Revolt.(north).Villa.
==mid.Mar. > ~Pancho Villa meets Madero - Villa successfully disarms mutinous anarchist PLM troops at Madero’s request
==mid.Mar. > Federal forces in the Laguna (Torreón) area are driven from the countryside

Maderista Revolt.
==mid.Mar. > Peace talks are held in New York City between Díaz’s Finance Minister Limantour and the moderate Maderista Vázquez Gómez

Díaz Regime.
==Mar.17 > The Díaz regime suspends constitutional rights - the US demands exemptions for foreigners
==Mar.19 > Finance Minister Limantour returns to Mexico - he dominates Díaz’s weakening government and seeks a deal with Madero

Maderista Revolt.(north).
==Mar.21 > The Federal commander in Chihuahua admits to Díaz that’s he’s lost control of the countryside - ~Federal tactics become purely defensive

Maderista Revolt.(south).Zapata.
==Mar.24 > Maderistas loot Jojutla in Morelos
==late.Mar.-mid.Apr. > Zapata emerges as the leader of the Morelos rebels

Maderista Revolt.(north).Villa.Orozco.
==late.Mar. > Orozco and Villa advance on Ciudad Chihuahua - Federal reinforcements rush in from Ciudad Juárez and other points

Labor.(south).
==late.Mar. > Dockers’ strike in Puerto México - the start of labor unrest

Díaz Regime.
==Mar.27 > The Complot de Tacubaya in Mexico City: young officers fail in an attempt to oust Díaz
==Mar.28 > Díaz replaces his entire cabinet (except the Ministers of Finance and of War) with more respected figures

Maderista Revolt.(northwest).
==Mar.--- > The Yaqui Indians of Sonora begin to join the Maderista revolt


April 1911

Díaz Regime.
==Apr.01 > Díaz opens the new session of Congress by proposing sweeping reforms, including land reform - ~unpopular officials are sacked - the Federal government is showing signs of desperation

Maderista Revolt.(north).
==Apr.07 > Madero’s forces begin to advance north against Ciudad Juárez

Maderista Revolt.(south).Zapata.
==Apr.07 > Zapata takes Chietla, and briefly holds Izúcar in west Puebla

Díaz Regime.
==Apr.12 > Díaz compels the unpopular Vice-President Corral to leave Mexico

Maderista Revolt.(north).US Relations.
==Apr.13-18 > Fighting at Agua Prieta kills and wounds several US citizens in Douglas, Arizona - sharp protests from the US government

Maderista Revolt.(south).Zapata.
==Apr.15 > The Maderista Figueroa brothers take Acapulco - ~they align with the Morelos landowners against the agrarian radical Zapata

Maderista Revolt.(north).
The start of the battle for Ciudad Juarez:
==Apr.15-16 > Federal forces are defeated at Bauche, south of Ciudad Juarez
==Apr.17-May.10 > The siege of Ciudad Juárez: Madero’s forces suddenly appear and demand the town’s surrender
==Apr.20-May.06 > Madero engages in peace talks during the siege of Ciudad Juárez - he considers allowing Díaz to stay in office
==Apr.22-May.07 > A shaky truce is in effect in Chihuahua

Maderista Revolt.(south).Zapata.
==Apr.22 > The Jolalpan accord between Maderista factions: the conservative Figueroas briefly recognize the radical Zapata’s control of Morelos

Díaz Regime.
==Apr.29 > Díaz’s Minister of Education urges an accommodation with Madero and other upper-class ‘political revolutionaries’ in order to crush the radical peasant revolutionaries

Maderista Revolt.(north).
==Apr.30-May.01 > Revolutionary leaders in Chihuahua reject Madero’s proposed compromise peace with the Federal government - ~the peace talks soon break down

Maderista Revolt.(south).Huerta.
==Apr.--- > The retired Porfirian General Victoriano Huerta is recalled to command Federal forces in Guerrero


May 1911

Maderista Revolt.(north).
==May.early > A Federal attack on Parras is mauled by dynamite-throwing rebels

Far Left.(northwest).
==May.08 > Tijuana is captured by the anarchist Magonistes - Lower California is now almost entirely in the hands of the PLM

Maderista Revolt.(north).Villa.Orozco.
The fall of Ciudad Juárez:
==May.07 > The truce in Chihuahua ends - Madero orders his forces to prepare to march south, away from Ciudad Juárez, angering revolutionary officers
==May.08.[1030 AM] > Contrary to Madero’s orders, Orozco and Villa launch an impromptu attack on Ciudad Juárez which develops into a full-scale assault
==May.10.[230 PM] > Madero takes Ciudad Juárez as Federal forces surrender, easing his problems of funding and supply - Madero’s revolution is in full flood
==May.11 > Madero establishes his provisional capital in Ciudad Juárez
==May.13 > Orozco and Villa attempt to arrest Madero to force changes in his government, but Madero faces them down - Villa is deeply impressed; he becomes devoted to Madero and opposed to Orozco

Maderista Revolt.(south).Zapata.
==May.13-19 > Zapata takes Cuautla in fierce fighting - ~he orders all villages in the district to reclaim land seized by the haciendas

Maderista Revolt.(north).
==May.14-15 > Federal forces suddenly abandon Torreón [night] - the victorious Maderistas indulge in widespread looting, and murder over 250 Chinese residents

Far Left.Labor.
==May.mid > ~Under the influence of Catalan anarchist Amadeo Ferrés, typographers in Mexico City form the country’s first anarcho-syndicalist trade union - it grows rapidly

Maderista Revolt.(north).Villa.
==May.16 > Villa resigns from Madero’s army

Maderista Revolt.Díaz Regime.
==May.17 > Díaz yields, and finally agrees to resign from office by month’s end - Madero sets up a truce - ~strong revolutionary opposition to a compromise peace

Maderista Revolt.(south).Zapata.
==May.18-21 > Supported by the landowners, the Figueroa brothers occupy western Morelos, including Jojutla and Cuernavaca, preventing the more radical Zapata from fully controlling the state

Far Left.(northwest).
==May.20 > In control of Lower California, the anarchist PLM publishes a proclamation for peasants to take collective possession of the land

Maderista Revolt.Díaz Regime.Unrest.
The end of the Díaz regime:
==May.21 > Using car headlights, the Treaty of Juárez is signed [1000.PM], ending the first phase of the Mexican Revolution: Díaz and Corral are to resign by month’s end - the conservative de la Barra is to act as interim president while elections are held
==May.23 > The Treaty of Juárez is announced in Mexico City
==May 24 > Anti-Díaz riots erupt in the capital, killing about 200
==May.25 > PORFIRIO DÍAZ RESIGNS [early.AM]; de la Barra becomes the interim president - ~confusion and instability throughout Mexico to early Jun, as Porfirian local governments resist the Maderistas’ authority - ~widespread urban rioting, rural jacqueries
==May.26 > Díaz quietly slips out of Mexico City [dawn], en route to Veracruz and to exile

Maderistas.(south).
==May.25 > In Morelos, the revolutionary Maderista Tepepa is summarily executed by the pro-landlord Maderista Figueroas

Maderistas.
==May.26 > Madero’s issues his first manifesto after the fall of Díaz, in which he backs off from supporting land reform - ~Madero selects his cabinet and other high officials; some key posts go to conservatives

Unrest.(north).
==May.27 > Fighting at Cuchillo Parado: Chihuahua is not secured until early June

Maderistas.(north).
==May.27 > Venustiano Carranza is approved as the Governor of Coahuila only after Madero threatens the old Porfirian legislature

Maderistas.(south).Zapata.
==May.29 > In Morelos, Zapata reaches an accord with the rival Figueroa brothers - on Jun.02, the Figueroas install a conservative provisional government

Unrest.(northwest).
==May.30-Jun.03 > In fighting at Culiacán, Maderistas defeat the die-hard Porfirian Governor of Sinaloa

Díaz Regime.
==May.31 > Díaz sails into exile from Veracruz, reportedly saying “Madero has unleashed a tiger; let’s see if he can control him.”

Unrest.(north).
==May.31 > Maderistas occupy Durango, suppressing defiant local conservatives

Right.
==May.--- > The Mexican Catholic Party is formed

Picture of Serdán family from
Cantando la Revolución

Mexican Revolution: Introduction   ///   (1) The Background: 1904-Oct.1910
(3) The Madero Era I: Jun.1911-Feb.1912   ///   (4) The Madero Era II: Mar.1912-Jan.1913
(5) The Constitutionalist Revolt I: Feb.-May.1913   ///   (6) The Constitutionalist Revolt II: Jun.-Dec.1913
(7) The Constitutionalist Revolt III: Jan.-Jul.1914   ///  Biographies and Glossary

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