Emiliano Zapata

(3) The Madero Era I: The Start of the Zapatista Revolt, Jun.1911-Feb.1912

June 1911

==Jun.01-07 > Madero makes a triumphal progress south to the capital
==Jun.07 > Madero enters Mexico City, accompanied by more than 100,000 supporters - the ecstatic crowds are undeterred by an earthquake

Madero’s first encounters with the crisis in Morelos:
==Jun.08 > Zapata confers with Madero and demands land reform
==Jun.12-15 > Madero visits Morelos; the local landowners convince him that Zapata is a threat to civic order
==Jun.13 > Under pressure from Madero and the landowners, Zapata’s forces begin rapidly demobilizing
==Jun.18-20 > Conservatives launch a propaganda campaign against Zapata, falsely claiming that Morelos is in a state of anarchy
==Jun.20, Zapata again confers with Madero, and agrees to step down - the landowners briefly seem to have regained full control of Morelos

==Jun.09 > Bernardo Reyes returns to Mexico City, warmly welcomed by conservatives

Far Left.(northwest).
==Jun.22 > The anarchist PLM are routed from Tijuana by Madero’s forces

==Jun.24 > Madero issues a conciliatory manifesto, but still provokes criticism from the right and the left
==Jun.--- > Madero starts demobilizing the disillusioned revolutionary troops

July 1911

==early.Jul. > In opposition to Madero, Interior Minister Vázquez Gómez quietly rearms radical local forces in Morelos

The Maderista movement splits:
==Jul.03 > The war-cost claims of Madero’s brother Gustavo are approved before all others - Madero’s popularity begins to slump
==Jul.09 > Madero proposes the replacement of the revolutionary party with the newly formed Partido Constitucional Progresista (PCP) - the idea is angrily opposed by his rival Vázquez Gómez
==Jul.12 >  In Puebla, Federal troops use machine guns to suppress unrest, mowing down over a hundred Maderistas; Madero supports the troops’ action - ~the left grows increasingly skeptical of Madero
==Jul.18 > Revolutionary Maderista generals demand that de la Barra’s conservative interim government resign
==Jul.25 > Madero denounces military interference in politics - afterwards, the revolutionary generals threaten Madero in a meeting at Tehuacán
==Aug.02 > Vázquez Gómez is ousted from Madero’s cabinet, ending the threat from the revolutionary army; the left breaks with Madero

==late.Jul. > Growing tension between Madero and Zapata - by early Aug, Madero adopts a hard-line policy

==Jul.--- > Miners form a national union - ~rising union activity; waves of strikes sweep Mexico

==summer > ~The ambitious revolutionary leader Orozco befriends the conservative Terrazas-Creel clan in Chihuahua

August 1911

==beginning.Aug. > The conservative leader Reyes begins to campaign for president against Madero

The Morelos crisis reaches a flashpoint:
==Aug.09 > Interim President de la Barra sends General Huerta to Morelos to disarm Zapata’s troops, with the authority to use force if necessary - Zapata learns the news during his wedding ceremony
==Aug.11 > The first armed clash occurs between the Federals and Zapata’s forces
==Aug.12 > de la Barra suspends the state sovereignty of Morelos
==Aug.13-24 > Madero desperately attempts to reach a settlement in Morelos: Zapata twice agrees to demobilize, but is forced to rescind when Huerta advances against him... in the end, Madero leaves Morelos in distress, his peace mission a failure

==mid.Aug. > The Madero-appointed governor of Sinaloa is ousted by the revolutionary leader Banderas, who is eventually arrested

==Aug.27 > Madero’s PCP party is formed at a convention in Mexico City, and draws up a reformist platform

September 1911

Zapatista Revolt.Huerta.
==Sep.01 > A botched attempt is made to arrest Zapata at Chinameca - THE ZAPATISTA REVOLT BEGINS; Zapata flees to Puebla - ~widespread executions by Huerta’s forces in Morelos

Crisis with the conservative opposition:
==Sep.02 > Reyes is physically attacked by Maderistas in Mexico City
==Sep.12 > The Reyistas petition Congress to postpone the election
==Sep.27 > Congress rejects the request - Reyes immediately withdraws from the presidential race and leaves for the US - fears of renewed civil war

Zapatista Revolt.Huerta.
==Sep.26 > Huerta declares Morelos to be pacified, and moves into Puebla in pursuit of Zapata - on Sep.27, Zapata issues an anti-government manifesto

October 1911

Mexican general elections:
==Oct.01 > Madero is elected president in the primary general election by a strong majority in reasonably fair voting; José María Pino Suárez is elected vice-president
==Oct.15 > Madero receives 98% of the electors’ votes in the final election
==Nov.02 > Congress declares Madero elected

Zapatista Revolt.Huerta.
The Zapatista revolt revives:
==Oct.06-07 > As Huerta advances deep into Puebla, Zapata doubles back into Morelos
==Oct.08 > Zapatistas blow up the ‘El Muerto’ bridge in Jococatepec
==Oct.24 > Zapata takes Milpa Alta, only fifteen miles from the heart of Mexico City
==Oct.27-28 > A cabinet crisis is brought on by the Zapatista victories; at Madero’s urging, Huerta is sacked as Federal commander in Morelos

Far Left.Labor.
==Oct.08 > First issue of the anarcho-syndicalist newspaper El Tipógrafo Mexicano

==Oct.31 > In a speech to rail workers, Madero endorses labor unions

Vázquez Gómez prepares a revolt:
==Oct.31 > The Vazquistas write their manifesto, the Plan of Tacubaya
==Nov.10 > State governors are sounded out for support

==Oct.--- > A revolt in Chiapas is defeated at Chiapa de Corzo

==fall > Widespread revolts and unrest throughout Mexico

November 1911

==early.Nov. > Che Gómez revolts at Juchitán in southeast Oaxaca, but is soon driven into the countryside - at the end of Nov, he is killed after surrendering to government forces

Madero Regime.
==Nov.06 > Madero takes office as President of Mexico

==Nov.08 > Police uncover a Vazquista-Reyista plot to assassinate Madero

Zapatista Revolt.
==Nov.08-12 > Government talks with the Zapatistas fizzle - the last hopeful attempt to resolve the Morelos revolt fails

==Nov.16 > Angel Barrios’ revolt is crushed in Oaxaca

==Nov.20 > Madero places the revolutionary leader Orozco in charge of operations against the rebel Reyes

==Nov.22 > Vázquez Gómez’ Plan of Tacubaya is promulgated, inducing minor revolts in western Chihuahua by ex-Maderistas, to early 1912

Right.US Relations.
==late.Nov. > The US moves vigorously to suppress Reyes’ plotting against Madero in San Antonio

Zapatista Revolt.
==Nov.28 > Zapata’s Plan of Ayala is issued, calling for rural reform and the fulfillment of the revolution: the Zapatista revolt is formalized - on Dec.15, the Plan is published in Mexico City

Madero Regime.(north).Right.
==Nov.--- > The loyal Maderista Governor of Chihuahua Abraham González is named Interior Minister - ~his departure for Mexico City weakens Maderista influence in Chihuahua; landowners revive and crack down on peasants

December 1911

==early.Dec. > A revolt in Sinaloa is suppressed
==Dec.11 > Yaqui Indians in Sonora seize their ancestral lands, setting off conflict with the Mexican government to 1929

Labor.Madero Regime.
==Dec.13 > The Mexican government forms a Department of Labor

Reyes’ conservative revolt fizzles:
==Dec.14 > Reyes slips into northern Mexico, but generates little popular support - Madero’s government uncovers a Reyista plot among the high-ranking military
==Dec.25, Reyes surrenders to the Mexican government

Rural.Madero Regime.
==Dec.18 > A federal law is enacted to provide small plots of land to peasants on easy terms - the first modest attempt at land reform

==late.Dec. > A serious textile strike occurs at Orizaba

January 1912

Zapatista Revolt.
Intense guerilla warfare in Morelos:
==Jan.04 > The Zapatistas attack Yautepec
==Jan.09 > Zapatistas blow the Cuernavaca-Tetecala Railroad
==Jan.17 > The oppressive Figueroa resigns as Governor of Morelos; reformers attempt to gain control of the state government
==Jan.19 > Martial law is declared in Morelos, Guerrero, Tlaxcala, and parts of Puebla and Mexico state as the revolt spreads
==Jan.26 > The Zapatistas launch a powerful offensive against Cuernavaca

Labor.Madero Regime.
==Jan.20 > In response to the Orizaba strike, the government sponsors a conference of textile owners - ~an agreement is reached on weak labor reforms
==Jan.--- > A National Labor Office is established to recommend reforms

US Relations.
==late.Jan. > Texas calls for US intervention in northern Mexico

Madero Regime.
==Jan.--- > Maderista political thugs, known as Porra, appear in Mexico City

February 1912

Rising unrest in Chihuahua:
==Jan.31 > Rebels sack Ciudad Juárez
==Feb.02 > Vázquez Gómez’ supporters renew their revolt
==Feb.02 > Fighting breaks out amongst the garrison of Ciudad Chihuahua
==Feb.02 > Pancho Villa is authorized to raise troops and sets out for western Chihuahua
==Feb.03 > Orozco persuades the rebels in Ciudad Juárez to surrender

Rural.Madero Regime.
==early.Feb. > The Mexican National Agrarian Commission recommends conservative land reform

Zapatista Revolt.
Tough government crackdown in Morelos:
==early.Feb > The brutal Juvencio Robles arrives to command military operations
==Feb.06 > The Zapatistas announce that they’ll blow up every train that enters Morelos and launch a renewed drive on Cuernavaca
==Feb.09 > Federal troops burn down Santa Maria, the home village of rebel leader de la O; ~the hopes of Morelos moderates for the restoration of peace are shattered
==Feb.10 > Robles arrests Zapata’s relatives; ~widespread ejections of officials and executions in Morelos
==Feb.15 > Robles begins the systematic burning of villages and the forced ‘resettlement’ of rural populations throughout Morelos

Rural.Madero Regime.(north).
==mid.Feb > In response to growing unrest, Abraham González resigns as Federal Interior Minister, returns to Chihuahua as Governor, and attempts to implement land reform

Rural.Madero Regime.
==Feb.17 > The Madero government recommends that states sell village communal lands (ejidos) to peasants

Labor.Madero Regime.
==Feb.24 > The Madero government encourages the formation of labor unions

The situation in Chihuahua grows critical:
==Feb.26 > US agents report that the conservative Terrazas-Creel family is trying to provoke American intervention in northern Mexico
==Feb.27 > Vázquez Gómez’ supporters gain control of Ciudad Juárez - ~Orozco refuses to suppress the revolt and resigns as head of the Chihuahua rurales
==Feb.29 > Villa denounces the revolt at Ciudad Juarez

==Feb.--- > ~Widespread rural unrest is endemic in the Laguna (Torreón) region of eastern Durango and southwestern Coahuila

US Relations.
==Feb.--- > US Senator Lodge and the Hearst papers revive the issue of the ‘threat’ of a Japanese base at Magdalena Bay in Lower California


Mexican Revolution: Introduction   ///   (1) The Background: 1904-Oct.1910
(2) The Maderista Revolt: Nov.1910-May.1911   ///  (4) The Madero Era II: Mar.1912-Jan.1913
(5) The Constitutionalist Revolt I: Feb.-May.1913   /// (6) The Constitutionalist Revolt II: Jun.-Dec.1913
(7) The Constitutionalist Revolt III: Jan.-Jul.1914   /// Biograhies and Glossary