Pascual Orozco

(4) The Madero Era II: Orozco’s Revolt, Mar.1912-Jan.1913

March 1912

Orozquista Revolt.Villa.
Orozco’s revolt explodes in Chihuahua:
==Mar.02 > Maderista Governor Abraham González is compelled to flee rebellious Ciudad Chihuahua
==Mar.03 > The revolutionary hero Orozco launches a dangerous revolt in Chihuahua, repelling an attempt by Pancho Villa to restore government control in the state capital - the revolt has strong regional support, and most of the local irregular forces join in - President Madero is stunned
==Mar.07 > Signs of panic in Mexico City - US Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson is frantically requesting arms from the US State Department and urging American citizens to flee
==Mar.08 > Secretary of War José González Salas leaves Mexico City to command the Federal forces against Orozco
==Mar.13 > The revolutionary PLM endorses the revolt
==Mar.14 > The US Congress authorizes a discretionary arms embargo on Mexico and Taft halts arms sales to Orozco
==mid.Mar > Orozco secretly orders that the estates of the powerful Terrazas family not be disturbed by rebel forces; in return, the Chihuahuan oligarchs support Orozco
==Mar.23 > The Orozquistas route the Federals at the 1st Battle of Rellano [afternoon]: Federal General González Salas commits suicide - the Madero regime is badly shaken
==Mar.24 > Pancho Villa suddenly seizes Parral in south Chihuahua
==Mar.25 > The Plan Orozquista is published: it accuses Madero of allowing the Mexican flag to be profaned by “the sacrilegious hand of the Yankee” and calls for social reform

Madero Regime.
==late.Mar. > ~Madero temporarily imposes press censorship

Zapatista Revolt.
==late.Mar.-spring > Zapatista activity is accelerating, with nearly full control of countryside; the Zapatistas take Puebla, but are defeated in attacks on Tres Marias and Parque del Conde

==Mar.-late.Jul. > The revolt in east Oaxaca revives, cutting the rail link to Chiapas

April 1912

US Relations.
==Apr.02-06 > Responding to US charges, the Mexican and Japanese governments deny any Japanese interest in Magdalena Bay in Baja California

Zapatista Revolt.
==early.Apr >Zapata briefly takes several key towns in Morelos, but is unable to hold them for long - mass executions by Federal forces in Jojutla

Orozquista Revolt.Villa.Huerta.
Orozco’s revolt begins to loose momentum:
==Apr.01 > Huerta takes command against the Orozco revolt, despite Madero’s misgivings
==Apr.02 > Villa repels an attack on Parral [morning], inflicting the first defeat on the Orozquistas
==Apr.03-04 > Villa evacuates Parral [night] - Orozquistas sack the town: Orozco’s popularity begins to decline
==Apr.12 > Huerta arrives in Torreón with reinforcements, and reorganizes the Federal forces in Chihuahua
==mid-late.Apr. > The Federal forces at Torreón are ravaged by typhoid

Madero Regime.
==Apr.--- > Mexican electoral reform - direct elections are introduced

==Apr.--- > The National Railways are largely ‘Mexicanized’ after a failed strike by American employees

Rural.Madero Regime.
Madero’s first, weak attempts at land reform:
==Apr.--- > The government begins carrying out its modest land reform program
==early summer > A government survey of national lands is largely completed, but the attempt at conservative land reform is not succeeding

==Apr. > A revolt in Guanajuato is suppressed
==spring. > Zapatista-inspired revolts overrun much of southern Puebla and often cut its communications with Oaxaca until summer

==spring > A widespread revolt erupts in Sinaloa

May 1912

Zapatista Revolt.
==early May > The Zapatista offensive in Morelos is fading
==May 19 > Martial law ends in southern Mexico - Morelos elects a pro-reform legislature

Orozquista Revolt.Huerta.
In the north, the tide turns against Orozco:
==early.May > Orozco fails to drive the Federals from Monclova in Coahuila
==May.05 > Vázquez Gómez arrives in Ciudad Juárez and forms a government, but he is soon arrested and expelled by his fellow rebel Orozco
==May.12 > Huerta defeats the Orozquistas at Estación Conejos as he begins advancing north from his base at Torreón
==mid.May > The radical Orozquista Braulio Hernández is ousted - Orozco’s movement becomes increasingly dominated by conservatives
==May.22-23 > Huerta decisively defeats Orozco at the Second Battle of Rellano: ~the Orozquista revolt begins to disintegrate

==mid-late.May. > A revolt erupts in northern Oaxaca: serranos besiege the state capital

June 1912

==Jun.04 > A day after he announces that he’s withdrawing his forces from Huerta’s command, Pancho Villa is suddenly arrested and condemned to be shot without a trial: Villa very narrowly escapes execution; Madero’s reprieve is said to have arrived between the orders “Aim!” and “Fire!” - ~Villa is sent to prison in Mexico City, while Huerta unsuccessfully orders officers to kill him while he’s in transit

Zapatista Revolt.
==Jun.15 > The brutal General Robles is transferred from Morelos

Madero Regime.
==Jun.30 > Mexico holds its first truly fair elections in decades, for the 26th Congress
==Jun.--- > In a public speech, Madero says “...liberty, by itself, will resolve all problems.”

==early summer. > The rebels in north Oaxaca defeat a Federal punitive force at Ixtepeji

July-August 1912

Orozquista Revolt.Huerta.
==Jul.06 > Huerta defeats the Orozquistas at Bachimba, southeast of Ciudad Chihuahua
==Jul.07 > Federal troops enter Ciudad Chihuahua: Orozco’s power is broken
==Aug.20 > Federal forces retake Ciudad Juárez
==Aug.--- > The Orozquistas invade Sonora, but meet strong local resistance

Zapatista Revolt.
==Jul.17 > The progressive Morelos legislature meets, passing a wave of reforms through Aug. that undermines popular support for the Zapatistas
==Jul.20 > Zapatistas massacre a train at Parres in the Federal District
==Aug.12 > Zapatistas massacre a train at Ticuman in central Morelos

Madero Regime.
==late.Jul. > Madero requests the suspension of the constitution in those parts of the country that are in revolt - he is angrily denounced by the opposition

Labor.Madero Regime.
==Jul-Aug.--- > Responding to renewed strikes, the government again sponsors a conference between industrialists and labor - further attempts at labor reform

September-December 1912

Orozquista Revolt.Huerta.
==early.Sep > The Federals take Ojinaga, the last rebel stronghold - the Orozquista forces break up into guerilla bands as Orozco flees to the US
==Sep.15 > Federal commander Huerta drunkenly boasts that he could ally with Orozco and take Mexico City - ~Madero soon hears of the comments
==Sep.20 > The Sonorans decisively defeat the invading Orozquistas at San Joaquín - ~the rebel remnants retreat back into Chihuahua
==mid.Oct > Madero relieves Huerta, ostensibly for health reasons

US Relations.
==Sep.12 > A harsh note from US Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson to the Mexican government makes unsubstantiated charges that the Madero regime has failed to protect Americans

Zapatista Revolt.
Zapata’s revolt revives:
==Sep.16 > A moderate-conservative legislature convenes in Morelos, which soon aborts reforms and renews a hard-line policy against the Zapatistas
==mid.Oct > The Zapatista revolt is showing renewed signs of life
==Nov.01 > The Zapatistas decide to burn the cane fields of haciendas that refuse to pay ‘taxes’- by late.Jan, half of the state’s sugar crop has been burned

Far Left.Labor.
The rise of anarcho-syndicalism in Mexico City:
==Sep.22 > The syndicalist COM  (Casa del Obrero Mundial) is established despite harassment from the Madero regime
==Jan.1913 > The COM undermines the government’s Gran Liga union, and dominates organized labor in Mexico City

==Sep.--- > Revolts are spreading in the Torreón area - also, the Cedillo family begins an agrarian revolt in San Luis/Tamaulipas

==Sep.--- > Rebels again attack Ciudad Oaxaca and ravage the central valley

==Sep.--- > The Yaqui revolt in Sonora is growing serious

==mid.Oct. > ~Conservatives begin plotting a coup in Mexico City

==Oct.16 > Félix Díaz’ conservative revolt in Veracruz attracts little support
==Oct.23.[morning] > Federal forces retake Veracruz and crush the uprising

Rural.Madero Regime.
The government moves toward serious land reform:
==late.Nov > after a Cabinet shuffle, Manuel Bonilla is given the agriculture post and begins working on real land reform
==Dec.03 > Legislator Luis Cabrera proposes the ejido (village communal land tenure) as the basis for radical land reform

Labor.Madero Regime.
==Dec.18 > A Mexican tax decree penalizes companies that defy labor reforms

Pancho Villa on the lam:
==Dec.25 > Villa escapes from prison in Mexico City, disguised as a lawyer
==Jan.02 > He slips over the US border at Nogales
==Jan.20 > Villa sends an ultimatum to Madero, demanding that his rights be restored

January 1913

==late.Jan. > Félix Díaz is transferred to a Mexico City prison, where he’s soon involved in plotting a coup with Reyes and other conservatives

Madero Regime.Right.
==Jan.--- > The Maderista Bloque Renovador faction urges a purge of conservatives occupying high office - Madero reproaches them for their pessimism

US Relations.
==early.1913 > Madero secretly requests that upon taking office, President-elect Woodrow Wilson remove the hostile American Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson

Madero Regime.(north).
==early.1913 > Carranza calls a meeting of northern governors at his estate at Ciénaga del Toro

Postcard of Orozco from
Postcards of the Mexican Revolution

Mexican Revolution: Introduction   ///   (1) The Background: 1904-Oct.1910
(2) The Maderista Revolt: Nov.1910-May.1911   ///  (3) The Madero Era I: Jun.1911-Feb.1912
(5) The Constitutionalist Revolt I: Feb.-May.1913   /// (6) The Constitutionalist Revolt II: Jun.-Dec.1913
(7) The Constitutionalist Revolt III: Jan.-Jul.1914   /// Biograhies and Glossary