Pancho Villa


 
(6) The Constitutionalist Revolt II: The Rise of Villa, Jun.-Dec.1913


June 1913

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==Jun.03-04 > Constitutionalist forces take Matamoros, destroying the Federal garrison

Maderistas.Huerta Regime.
==Jun.06 > The Congressional permanent committee defies Huerta and refuses to call a special session

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==Jun.07-08 > The Constitutionalists take Zacatecas, infuriating Huerta (see Jul.16)

Finance.European Relations.
==Jun.08 > Two days before an earlier loan is due, the Huerta regime arranges a £20 million European loan on poor terms - only £6 million is advanced

Constitutionalist Revolt.(south).
==Jun.13 > Campeche Governor Castillo Brito goes over to the Constitutionalists - the first serious defection outside of northern Mexico

US Relations.
==Jun.13 > Woodrow Wilson coolly declines the Ambassador’s frantic demands that the US recognize Huerta’s regime: the President proposes to mediate the conflict if Huerta will pledge free elections
==Jun.18 > The President’s special envoy William Bayard Hale releases a blistering report charging that Henry Lane Wilson assisted Huerta’s coup: President Wilson definitely decides against recognizing Huerta

Huerta Regime.
==mid.Jun. > Huerta has clearly broken the ‘Pact of the Embassy’ with his conservative rival Felix Díaz, and is openly concentrating all power in his own hands

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==Jun.17-18 > Rebel attacks drive the Federals from the Ciudad Durango
==Jun.19-21 > The Constitutionalists occupy and sack Ciudad Durango

Constitutionalist Revolt.(northwest).
==Jun.25 > Obregón routes the Federals at Santa María, bottling them up in Guaymas and ending any threat to Sonora

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Villa.
==late.Jun. > The rebels control all of Chihuahua except the capital and Ciudad Juárez - ~Pancho Villa controls the largest revolutionary force in the region

Huerta Regime.
==late.Jun. > Huerta’s Foreign Minister de la Barra takes a leave of office - permanently

US Relations.
==late.Jun. > President Wilson’s first attempt at talks with Carranza is botched by the inept US envoy del Valle


July 1913

Constitutionalists.
==Jul.04 > Carranza organizes the Constitutionalist forces into seven regional corps: the northwest is commanded by Obregón, the northeast by González, and the central (the Zacatecas area) by Natera

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Orozco.
==early.Jul > Orozco defeats the Constitutionalists at Ciudad Camargo and Mapula

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
Carranza is driven from Coahuila:
==early.Jul > Federal forces renew their advance against Carranza’s capital at Monclova
==Jul.10 > Carranza is driven from the town - he makes the difficult overland trip to a new base in Sonora, to Sep 20

Huerta Regime.
==Jul.09 > Huerta reorganizes the rurales (rural gendarmes), attempting to make them elite forces

US Relations.
==Jul.12 > The first major anti-US demonstration occurs in Mexico City
==Jul.13 > Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson leaves Mexico, recalled for ‘consultation’

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Orozco.
==mid.Jul > Orozco defeats the Constitutionalists at Santa Rosalia

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==Jul.16 > The Federals retake Zacatecas

US Relations.
==Jul.19 > In a memo to President Wilson, Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan proposes that the US tender its “good offices” to restore order in Mexico
==late.Jul > Pro-Huerta Ambassador Henry Lane Wilson meets with President Woodrow Wilson, and proposes a full-scale US invasion of Mexico to restore peace; the President is unimpressed  (see mid.Aug)

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==Jul.21-31 > A Constitutionalist offensive against Torreón, in southeastern Coahuila, fails after heavy fighting

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Orozco.
==Jul.22 > Orozco arrives at Ciudad Chihuahua and reinforces the Federal garrison

European Relations.US Relations.
==Jul.--- > Britain announces the appointment of the pro-Huerta, anti-American Lionel Carden as ambassador - British-US tensions over Mexico to mid-Nov

Constitutionalist Revolt.(northwest).
==Jul.--- > Sonoran Constitutionalist commander Obregón is pushing southwards into Sinaloa

US Relations.
==summer > The US fears raids from Mexico - the first considerations of American intervention in the Mexican Revolution

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Villa.
==summer > Villa is operating out of Ascencion in northwestern Chihuahua - he makes his first contact with Carranza


August 1913

US Relations.
The Lind mission and its aftermath:
==Aug.02 > Huerta refuses to pledge support for an armistice and a free election, as proposed by President Wilson
==Aug.04 > US special envoy John Lind departs for Mexico, with instructions to get Huerta to agree to Wilson’s proposal
==Aug.09 > Huerta bluntly states “I will resist with arms any attempt by the United States to interfere in the affairs of Mexico.”
==Aug.12-26 > Lind holds tense talks with Mexican Foreign Minister Gamboa
==Aug.16 > The Huerta regime categorically rejects Lind’s proposals and accuses the US of interfering in Mexican internal affairs - ~a subsequent US promise of a loan is also rejected  (see Aug.26)

Finance.Huerta Regime.
==mid.Aug. > The Huerta regime orders regional military commanders to extract forced loans from local residents - ~the regime is suffering from a six million peso monthly federal deficit, as inflation is beginning to spiral out of control

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==mid.Aug.-Oct. > Federal forces stage an offensive northwards from Monclova in Coahuila

US Relations.
==mid.Aug. > Henry Lane Wilson is compelled to resign as US Ambassador to Mexico

Zapatista Revolt.
==Aug.19 > after a highly publicized phony campaign, Robles occupies Huautla in southeast Morelos after it is abandoned by the Zapatistas: he finds only the corpses of Huerta’s peace commissioners, but proclaims “Zapata’s hordes have today been completely destroyed.”

Maderistas.Huerta Regime.
==Aug.25 > The former Deputy Isidro Fabela appeals to Congress to break with Huerta and join Carranza

Constitutionalist Revolt.(northwest).
==late.Aug-early.Sep.--- > Heavy fighting in northern Sinaloa - by early Sep, the Constitutionalists control all of Sinaloa except the largest towns

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Villa.
==Aug.26 > Returning from northwest Chihuahua, Villa routes the Federals at San Andrés - ~he refuses an attempt by Carranza to subordinate him to Obregón

US Relations.
==Aug.26 > Lind leaves Mexico City in failure, though he claims his mission was a success; he vegetates in Veracruz to Dec.30
==Aug.27 > Speaking before the US Congress, Wilson proclaims a policy of  “watchful waiting” on Mexico, and cuts off all arms sales to Huerta as well as to the rebels

Huerta Regime.
==late.summer > The Federal government orders all schoolboys to wear military uniforms - ~Huerta’s extreme militarisation of Mexican society, to 1914 - ~mass forced conscription (leva) by seizing individuals off the streets


September 1913

Zapatista Revolt.
==Sep.04 > General Robles leaves Morelos ‘for rest’; on Sep.13, he is formally relieved of command - ~Federal pressure is slackening in the area; Zapata controls all but the main towns

US Relations.
==early.Sep > Huerta sends the Zamacona mission to the US, where it is ignored

Constitutionalist Revolt.(northwest).US Relations
==Sep.05-07 > A US Marine detachment lands in Sonora to aid in the evacuation of foreigners from the Yaqui Valley

Huerta Regime.
==Sep.13 > Huerta ousts the last of Felix Díaz’ followers from his cabinet

Huerta Regime.
The start of friction between Huerta and the Congress:
==Sep.16 > Huerta announces to Congress that he’s eager to turn the government over to a constitutional successor
==Sep.18 > Congress votes down Huerta’s choice for Minister of Education: the Assembly’s attacks on the regime grow more open - on Sep.23, Senator Belisario Domínguez delivers a stinging attack on Huerta

Constitutionalist Revolt.(northwest).
Carranza in Sonora:
==Sep.20, Carranza arrives in Hermosillo and establishes his provisional capital; Obregón is formally named commander of the Army of the Northwest
==Sep.24, Carranza calls for social reforms and a new constitution

Right.
==Sep.24 > Federal Foreign Minister Gamboa is nominated for President by the Catholic Party, with US approval

Zapatista Revolt.
==late.Sep > Zapata moves his base of operations to northern Guerrero

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Villa.
Pancho Villa begins his rise to power:
==Sep.26 > Pancho Villa is elected the rebel commander of Chihuahua and Durango by regional revolutionary leaders
==Sep.29-Oct.01 > Villa organizes his forces into the División del Norte; he takes Avilés
==Sep.30.[500.PM] > Villa begins the battle for Torreón
==Oct.01.[900.PM] > Villa takes Torreón, as the Federals flee in panic; the city will be lost again in Dec.

European Relations.US Relations.
==end.Sep. > Federal officials propose the nationalization of the oil industry; although directed against the US, the proposal damages relations with Britain


October 1913

Zapatista Revolt.
==Oct.04 > Zapata tightens up military organization and discipline among his bands

Constitutionalist Revolt.(northwest).
==Oct.05 > The Constitutionalists take Ciudad Sinaloa

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==early.Oct. > ~A Federal attack on Carmago is repelled
==Oct.07 > Federal forces occupy Piedras Negras on the Texas border - the Constitutionalists are forced from eastern and northern Coahuila

Huerta Regime.
Huerta’s crisis with the Mexican Congress:
==Oct.08 > Senator Domínguez, who had openly criticized Huerta a couple of weeks earlier, is abducted and murdered by the Mexico City police
==Oct.09 > The legislature demands an inquiry into Domínguez’ disappearance, and vows to stay in permanent session
==Oct.10 > Federal troops dissolve the Mexican Congress and arrest 110 Congressional deputies [300.PM]: Huerta establishes a full-fledged military dictatorship - US recognition becomes virtually impossible

US Relations.
==Oct.10 > President Wilson and Colonel House discuss the possibility of the US blockading or invading Mexico

European Relations.US Relations.
==Oct.11 > British Ambassador Carden presents his credentials to Huerta, clearly endorsing Huerta’s suppression of Congress on the previous day - US President Wilson reacts angrily

Constitutionalists.
==Oct.17 > Carranza forms a Constitutionalist provisional government in Hermosillo in Sonora - ~the rebels dominate most of the north

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Villa.
==Oct.20 > Villa begins his brilliant Chihuahua campaign

US Relations.European Relations.
The US dominates international relations with Mexico:
==Oct.21 > British Foreign Minister Grey recognizes that the US has a special interest in Mexico - on Oct.27, Grey agrees that Britain will follow the US lead on Mexican policy (see Nov.14)
==Oct.24 > The US asks other governments to withhold recognition of Huerta; ~general international support for Wilson’s tough policy against Huerta
==Oct.27 > Speaking in Mobile, Wilson opposes European recognition of the Huerta regime

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==Oct.23-24 > A rebel attack on Monterrey fails

Huerta Regime.
==Oct.26 > Farcical Mexican election, openly manipulated by Huerta - the results are nullified by the very low turnout
==Oct.27 > Huerta authorizes an army of 150,000
==end.Oct. > Fleeing from his former ally Huerta, the conservative leader Felix Díaz seeks asylum in the US consulate at Veracruz
==Oct.--- > Huerta raises import duties 50%

Constitutionalists.(northwest).
==fall > Returning after having fled to the US, Sonoran Governor Maytorena resumes office despite protests from local revolutionaries - ~friction with Obregón

Villa.Zapata.
==fall > Villa contacts Zapata, pledging land reform in the north - Zapata responds warmly, warning Villa against Carranza and urging the mass executions of class enemies - a Zapatista emissary reaches Villa in Nov.

US Relations.
==fall > Leading American business interests in northern Mexico are openly considering detaching the area from Mexico


November 1913

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Villa.
==Nov.01 > Villa demands the surrender of Ciudad Chihuahua
==Nov.05-11 > Villa's attacks on the town are repelled with heavy loss

US Relations.
The US increases pressure against Huerta:
==Nov.01 > Wilson demands that Huerta resign, virtually threatening US intervention; ~after the threat becomes public, Huerta pledges to stay in office until Mexico is pacified - on Nov.07, Wilson informs other governments that America “will employ such means as may be necessary” to force Huerta’s resignation - on Nov.27, the US publicly announces that its policy is to oust Huerta

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==early.Nov. > Federal forces launch a methodical attack on Torreón  (see Dec.09)

US Relations.
==Nov.12 > The Nogales Conference between Carranza and US envoy Hale: Carranza insists on pursuing a military solution and emphatically opposes an American offer to intervene - Woodrow Wilson is annoyed at Carranza’s tough stance

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Villa.
==Nov.13.[evening] > Villa’s cavalry secretly slips away from Ciudad Chihuahua

Constitutionalist Revolt.(northwest).
==Nov.14 > The Constitutionalists take Culiacán in Sinaloa

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==Nov.14-18 > The Constitutionalists besiege and take Ciudad Victoria in Tamaulipas; the city is wrecked

European Relations.
==Nov.14 > British Ambassador Carden and other European diplomats formally advise Huerta to yield to US demands: the end of Huerta’s hopes for British support

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Villa.
Pancho Villa shatters Federal power in Chihuahua:
==Nov.15.[200.AM-noon] > Villa unexpectedly takes Ciudad Juárez when his forces suddenly arrive by train late at night and surprise the garrison
==Nov.23-25 > Marching south from Juárez, Villa crushes the Federals in the bloody battle of Tierra Blanca
==Nov.27-30 > The Federal garrison abandons Ciudad Chihuahua, and soon begins to disintegrate as it marches across the desert toward Ojinaga - on Dec.01, Villa occupies the city   (see Dec.12)

Constitutionalist Revolt.(northwest).
==late.Nov. > In Sinaloa, a Constitutionalist attack on Mazatlán fails

Constitutionalist Revolt.(northwest).
==Nov.30 > Two American pilots flying for different Mexican factions exchange pistol shots, near Naco in Sonora - the world’s first air-to-air combat


December 1913

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==Dec.09-10 > The Federals retake Torreón

Constitutionalists.(north).Villa.
==Dec.09-Jan. > Villa assumes the governorship of Chihuahua - ~he orders the expropriation of the great estates (including Terrazas’ and Creel’s), distributes food and proceeds to the poor, and imprisons Terrazas’ son - Villa effectively controls Chihuahua, to summer 1915 
==Dec.12 > The remnants of the Federal Chihuahua force reach Ojinaga  (see Jan.10.1914)

Miscellaneous.
==Dec.26 > The last known letter from Ambrose Bierce, who evidently crossed the border into Chihuahua in Nov, and subsequently vanished without a trace. (Bierce’s whereabouts in his last months are very uncertain; while most accounts have him dying near Ojinaga or being executed by Villa, others speculate that Bierce’s trip into Mexico was a hoax and that he died in the United States)
==Dec.26 > The radical American journalist John Reed meets and befriends Pancho Villa - ~Reed covers the Mexican revolution to early Apr.1914

Finance.European Relations.
==Dec.--- > European bankers decline to extend further loans to the Huerta regime

Huerta Regime.
==winter > Huerta’s French-trained air corps is operational

Photo of Villa from
Cantando la Revolución

Mexican Revolution: Introduction   ///   (1) The Background: 1904-Oct.1910
(2) The Maderista Revolt: Nov.1910-May.1911   ///  (3) The Madero Era I: Jun.1911-Feb.1912
(4) The Madero Era II: Mar.1912-Jan.1913   ///   (5) The Constitutionalist Revolt I: Feb.-May.1913
(7) The Constitutionalist Revolt III: Jan.-Jul.1914   /// Biograhies and Glossary
 

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