Villa's División del Norte on the move

(7) The Constitutionalist Revolt III: The Fall of the Huerta Dictatorship, Jan.-Jul.1914

January 1914

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==Jan.01-03 > A Constitutionalist frontal attack on Nuevo Laredo is repelled with great loss of life

US Relations.
==Jan.02 > Woodrow Wilson is informed that Huerta is considering declaring war on the US

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==Jan.04-07 > A Constitutionalist attack on Ojinaga fails

==Jan.05 > Villa signs an exclusive contract with the Mutual Film Corporation for $25,000 (claims that he scheduled battles and executions to accommodate filmmakers are untrue)   (see May.09)

Constitutionalist Revolt.(northwest).
==early.Jan. > Federal troops mutiny at Ensenada in Baja California

Huerta Regime.
==Jan.06 > With Huerta’s authorization, the Catholic Church dedicates Mexico to the Sacred Heart of Jesus

==Jan.07 > At Carranza’s request, Villa resigns as the Governor of Chihuahua, but he continues to dominate the region

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Villa.
==Jan.10 > In tough fighting, Villa takes Ojinaga, on the US border - the Constitutionalist conquest of Chihuahua is complete

Villa.US Relations.
==Jan.12 > Pancho Villa first meets John J. Pershing, in Ojinaga

Finance.European Relations.Huerta Regime.
==mid.Jan. > ~Huerta suspends payment on the interest on the Mexican national debt - ~Mexican credit collapses to the 1940’s - ~Huerta looses European support

Constitutionalist Revolt.(northwest).
==late.Jan. > Obregón fights an indecisive battle near Empalme

European Relations.US Relations.
==Jan.28 > British Foreign Minister Grey proposes to Woodrow Wilson that the European powers demand Huerta’s resignation - wary of European interference, Wilson declines

Zapatista Revolt.
==Jan.29 > The Zapatistas attack Tlahuac

February 1914

US Relations.
==Feb.03 > After receiving Constitutionalist assurances, President Wilson revokes the arms embargo on Mexico to aid Carranza - ~frightened landowners, businessmen, and church leaders throw their support to Huerta

Constitutionalist Revolt.(south).
==early.Feb. > A revolt erupts at Abala in the Yucatan

Villa.US Relations.
==mid.Feb. > Villa meets with US General Hugh Scott on the International Bridge at El Paso

Villa.European Relations.
==Feb.17 > Villa kills the reactionary British landowner William Benton during a confrontation in Juárez - sharp British protests

Rural.Huerta Regime.
==Feb.17 > Huerta establishes an Agricultural Ministry

==Feb.22-23 > Villa returns the remains of his executed mentor Governor Abraham González to Ciudad Chihuahua for a formal funeral

==late.Feb.-Apr 12 > Carranza relocates his capital from Hermosillo in Sonora to Ciudad Chihuahua

European Relations.
==late.Feb. > Under US pressure, Britain withdraws its recognition of the Huerta regime
==late.Feb. > Germany decides to support Huerta

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Villa.
==Feb.--- > General Felipe Angeles arrives in Villa’s army, and soon becomes his chief military adviser

March 1914

Constitutionalist Revolt.
==early.Mar. > The rebel Constitutionalists have become militarily better supplied than their Federal opponents

Rural.Huerta Regime.
==Mar.11 > Seeking popular support, Huerta orders the preparation of land reform

Zapatista Revolt.
==Mar.12 > Federal troops mutiny at Jojutla in Morelos, disrupting the southern command
==Mar.14 > Zapata opens the siege of Chilpancingo, the capital of Guerrero  (see Mar.23-24)

Constitutionalist Revolt.
==mid.Mar. > The Constitutionalists open a general offensive - advances by Obregón in the northwest, González in the northeast, and Villa in the center, against Torreón - small risings in central and in southern Mexico - Huerta’s cause is generally seen as hopeless

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Villa.
Villa’s hard-fought Torreón campaign (part one):
==Mar.20-21 > Villa takes Bermejillo, Mapimí, and Tlahualilo on the outer edge of Torreón’s defenses
==Mar.23-26 > Northwest of Torreón, he takes Gómez Palacio in heavy fighting
==Mar.26.[evening]-Apr.02 > The Battle of Torreón: vicious house to house fighting with heavy civilian losses; Villa commits excesses against Spanish nationals living in the city, contributing to his rising friction with Carranza
==Apr.01.[afternoon-evening] > Villa briefly evacuates Torreón and heavily shells the city
==Apr.02.[afternoon] > Federal forces abandon Torreón in a heavy dust storm: the Federals have lost 5,000 men in the battle, the rebels 1,700 - next morning, Villa occupies the ruins of the town  (see Apr.10)

Zapatista Revolt.
==Mar.23-24 > Zapata storms Chilpancingo
==Mar.28 > The Zapatistas formally take over the Guerrero state government

Huerta Regime.
==late.Mar. > The Huerta regime makes military uniforms and training compulsory for all Federal government employees

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==Mar.26 > González begins the siege of Tampico

April 1914

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==Apr.05-06 > González begins serious attacks on Tampico
==Apr.07-08 > Constitutionalist attacks are repelled at the Iturbide Bridge
==Apr.08 > González advances on Monterrey

Zapatista Revolt.
==Apr.06 > Zapatistas execute the hated Federal General Cartón
==Apr.08 > The Zapatistas take Iguala in Guerrero

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Villa.
The end of Villa’s Torreón campaign:
==Apr.10-12 > After a week of heavy fighting in the area northwest of Torreón, Villa routes the Federals from San Pedro - the main Federal force in northern Mexico disintegrates, with many of the retreating troops perishing in the desert
==Apr.15 > Villista forces occupy San Pedro

US Relations.
The intervention crisis begins:
==Apr.09 > The Tampico incident: Federal troops briefly arrest several American sailors near the battle zone [late morning]; despite a prompt apology by local Federal authorities, US Admiral Mayo delivers an ultimatum demanding a special salute from Huerta’s regime
==Apr.10 > Huerta balks at the US Navy’s demands for a special salute, while President Wilson backs Admiral Mayo
==Apr.12 > Federal authorities formally decline the US demand for a special salute; Admiral Mayo begins planning a landing at Tampico
==Apr.14 > Wilson orders the US Atlantic fleet to Mexico [afternoon] - Huerta’s reaction: “Is it a calamity?  No.  It is the best thing that could happen to us.”
==Apr.15 > The US Senate gives virtually unanimous support for Wilson’s hard line against Huerta; Senator Borah exults: “If the flag of the United States is ever run up in Mexico, it will never come down.  This is the beginning of the march of the United States to the Panama Canal!”

==Apr.12 > Carranza sets up his capital at Ciudad Chihuahua
==mid.Apr > Carranza thwarts an attempt by Villa to execute Chihuahua Governor Chao: the harsh dispute between Carranza and Villa is soon apparently smoothed over, but both quietly begin preparing for an armed power struggle
==Apr.15 > The El Paso paper Correo del Bravo, financed by the Sonoran politico Maytorena, begins attacking Carranza as an enemy of agrarian reform, and backing Villa and Zapata

Zapatista Revolt.
Federal power collapses in Morelos:
==mid.Apr. > Zapata controls virtually all of Morelos except the district capitals - all but two haciendas have been taken
==late.Apr. > Federal forces abandon all but Cuernavaca and Jojutla in Morelos  (see early May)

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==Apr.18-24 > González takes Monterrey in heavy fighting - Federal forces abandon Nuevo Laredo

US Relations.
The US intervenes in Mexico:
==Apr.18 > Wilson issues an ultimatum to Huerta to salute the US flag
==Apr.19.[1230.AM] > The US learns from its Veracruz consul that the German ship Ypiranga is due Apr.21 with munitions for Huerta
==Apr.20.[300.PM] > Wilson asks a joint session of Congress for authorization to use armed force against Mexico - he receives a standing ovation, but the resolution is delayed in the Senate by Lodge and Root
==Apr.20 > The US Atlantic Fleet is ordered to proceed immediately to Veracruz
==Apr.21.[200.AM] > Wilson decides to order the immediate seizure of the Veracruz customhouse to forestall the unloading of the Ypiranga
==Apr.21 > US forces land at Veracruz [1120.AM], quickly occupying key points near the harbor - fighting soon erupts [1230.PM]: by the next day, 19 US personnel and over 200 Mexicans have been killed - bafflement in the US and abroad - ~the incident provokes a furious response throughout Latin America
==Apr.21 > The Mexican Congress grants Huerta extraordinary powers; he immediately decrees an amnesty and urges all rebels to join in resisting American aggression - a brief surge of support for the Huerta regime sweeps Mexico; widespread anti- American rioting - ~the government fears a US attack on the capital and pulls its troops back to central Mexico
==Apr.22.[800-1100.AM] > US forces occupy all of the city of Veracruz
==Apr.22 > Huerta breaks relations with the US, and expels the senior US diplomat
==Apr.22 > The US Senate belatedly authorizes the use of force against Mexico - US citizens are evacuated from Tampico

Constitutionalists.Villa.US Relations.
==Apr.22 > Carranza angrily condemns the US seizure of Veracruz
==Apr.23-25 > Villa privately informs the US that he supports the seizure of Veracruz; he is near a total rupture with Carranza

US Relations.
==Apr.24 > US Secretary of War Garrison urges an immediate march on Mexico City; the Cabinet discusses the possibility of war with Mexico; President Wilson authorizes the mobilization of the US Army

Latin American Relations.US Relations.
==Apr.25 > Argentina, Brazil and Chile offer to mediate the US-Mexican crisis

US Relations.
US forces in Veracruz:
==Apr.25 > US naval aviators go into action for the first time, near Veracruz
==Apr.26 > The US declares martial law after local officials refuse to cooperate
==Apr.28 > US forces occupy the hideous fortress/prison of San Juan de Ulloa near Veracruz and release the political prisoners
==Apr.30 > The US Army, under General Funston, takes over command in the area from the Navy

US Relations.
==Apr.29 > Wilson comments on the Mexican situation: “We have been in a blind alley for so long that I am longing for an exit.”

May 1914

US Relations.
US forces in Veracruz:
==May.01 > Young Douglas MacArthur arrives; he is soon participating in reconnaissance missions behind Mexican lines, surviving several shootouts
==May.02 > General Funston formally assumes administrative control of Veracruz
==May.02 > US pilots fly the world’s first air mission in direct support of ground troops
==early.May > US troops begin a massive public works campaign to clean up the city
==May.07 > General Funston proposes an advance on Mexico City from Veracruz

Zapatista Revolt.
==early.May. > The Zapatistas take Jojutla in Morelos  (see Jun.02)

Constitutionalist Revolt.(south).
Fighting in Tepic:
==May.04 > The Constitutionalists take Acaponeta in Tepic
==mid.May. > The rebels take Ciudad Tepic

US Relations.
==May.06 > US Pacific Fleet commander Admiral Howard protests the primitive Constitutionalist air raids on Mazatlán

Villa.US Relations.
==May.09 > The film The Life of General Villa opens in New York, depicting Pancho Villa as a hero, with the real Villa acting in some scenes

US Relations.
==May.11 > Speaking at the New York City funeral of US forces killed at Veracruz, Woodrow Wilson says “We have gone down to Mexico to serve mankind...”

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==May.11-13 > Constitutionalist General Pablo González takes Tampico

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Villa.
Villa clears southern Coahuila:
==May.11 > Villa begins an advance against Paredón and Saltillo
==May.17 > Villa’s cavalry storms Paredón, north of Saltillo - afterwards, Villa has Federal officers shot in front of him while he’s eating lunch
==May.20 > Saltillo, the last Federal outpost in the northeast, is abandoned to Villa
==May.27 > Villa meets fellow General Pablo González, and turns over Saltillo to him

Latin American Relations.US Relations.
==May.20-Jul.02 > An unsuccessful conference is held between the US and Mexico at Niagara Falls, mediated by Argentina, Brazil, and Chile

Huerta Regime.
==late.May. > The Catholic Mexico City daily El País is shut down - Huerta’s control of the capital press is complete

US Relations.
==late.May. > Woodrow Wilson publicly favors agrarian reform in Mexico

Huerta Regime.
==May.27 > The ship Ypiranga finally unloads munitions for the Federals at Puerto México

Labor.Far Left.
==May.27 > The Huerta regime shuts down the syndicalist Casa del Obrero 

June 1914

==early.Jun. > The bitter split between Sonoran Governor Maytorena and General Obregón slows the rebel advance in the northwest

Zapatista Revolt.
Zapata mops up Morelos:
==Jun.02-10 > Zapata cuts off Cuernavaca, the last Federal outpost in Morelos
==Jun.10 > Zapata orders an advance on Mexico City

Crisis between Carranza and Villa (part one):
==Jun.08 > After making major concessions to Carranza, Villa opens talks but is refused any counter-concessions - ~Villa is enraged, and considers marching on Carranza’s government
==Jun.10-12 > Carranza provokes Villa by ordering him to break up his command and send reinforcements to Natera’s attack on Zacatecas  (see Jun.13)

==Jun.11 > A provisional Mexican government is approved by the Niagara Falls delegates

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).
==Jun.11-14 > Federal forces repel Natera’s attacks on Zacatecas

Crisis between Carranza and Villa (part two):
==Jun.13 > Villa suddenly offers his resignation - it is immediately accepted by Carranza
==Jun.14 > Villa’s generals forcefully defy Carranza - they unanimously reinstate Villa, harshly condemn Carranza, and announce that they’ll advance on Zacatecas under Villa’s command  (see late.Jun)

US Relations.
==Jun.16 > Constitutionalist envoys secretly meet with US representatives at Niagara Falls and firmly reject American mediation or assistance against Huerta

Constitutionalist Revolt.(north).Villa.
Villa’s Zacatecas campaign:
==Jun.16 > Villa begins advancing on Zacatecas
==Jun.19 > Villa’s attack on Zacatecas (to Jun 23): his forces arrive and begin clashing with the Federal defenders on the outer lines
==Jun.22 > Villa personally arrives at Zacatecas
==Jun.23 > Villa takes Zacatecas: in extremely fierce fighting, he launches attacks all around the perimeter [1000.AM] - the Villistas take El Grillo Hill  [100.PM] - the panicked Federal forces are slaughtered in repeated attempts to escape [mid to late afternoon]: rebel General Angeles writes “...I saw them annihilated with overflowing joy; because I saw the event from the artistic point of view, as the master work terminated,” though he later stops a systematic Villista slaughter of prisoners [dusk] - the city is left in ruins - the Federals have suffered about 9000 casualties, three times the rebels’ losses - Huerta’s situation is growing desperate

Carranza and Villa prepare to fight each other:
==late.Jun. > Carranza thwarts Villa from immediately advancing from Zacatecas by cutting off coal and other supplies - the exasperated Villa takes no further part in the overthrow of Huerta, but directs his energies against Carranza

US Relations.
==Jun.26 > The US military government in Veracruz orders all non-Mexican prostitutes to leave within five days

July 1914

Huerta Regime.
==Jul.02 > Key figures in Huerta’s regime begin to flee abroad

Constitutionalist Revolt.(central).
The fall of Guadalajara:
==Jul.06-07 > Obregón crushes the western Federal army at Orendáin, northwest of Guadalajara, ~and completes their destruction at El Castillo
==Jul.08 > Obregón takes Guadalajara

==Jul.08 > Carranza and Villa sign an agreement, which neither take seriously

Huerta Regime.
The end of the Huerta regime:
==Jul.08 > Huerta decides to resign
==Jul.15 > THE FALL OF HUERTA: his family flees for Puerto Mexico [morning], as Huerta submits his resignation to Congress

Photo of División del Norte from
Cantando la Revolución

Mexican Revolution: Introduction   ///   (1) The Background: 1904-Oct.1910
(2) The Maderista Revolt: Nov.1910-May.1911   ///  (3) The Madero Era I: Jun.1911-Feb.1912
(4) The Madero Era II: Mar.1912-Jan.1913   ///   (5) The Constitutionalist Revolt I: Feb.-May.1913
(6) The Constitutionalist Revolt II: Jun.-Dec.1913   /// Biograhies and Glossary