Paul Milyukov


(4) 1906: Repression and Terror


Czarist violence.Baltic.
==Jan.01 > Commenting on the Baltic revolt, the Czar writes: “Terror must be met with terror.”

Labor.Far Left.
==Jan.01 > The remnants of the St. Petersburg Soviet call off their general strike

Military.
==Jan.03 > Witte urges that army be re-organized to enable it to crush national unrest

Czarist violence.Peasants.
==Jan.03 > The sadistic Lt. General Meller-Zakomelsky leads a punitive expedition eastwards from Moscow along the Trans-Siberian Railroad

Czarist violence.Labor Unrest.
==Jan.04-06 > Troops in Tiflis riot and use artillery against insurgent workers - the government pacifies the city by mid-Jan

Far Right.Czarist Regime.
==Jan.05 > The Czar officially receives a delegation from the anti-Semitic URP

Socialist Revolutionaries.
==Jan.05 > The young radical dilettante Kerensky is arrested in St. Petersburg for possessing SR literature, and is imprisoned until April

Czarist violence.Ethnic.Baltic.
==early.Jan > ~Extremely brutal government punitive expeditions are launched in the Baltic region - 1,170 residents are killed by early Jun

Labor.Czarist Regime.
==early.Jan > Gapon, the former hero of organized labor, secretly agrees to become a police informant

Czarist Regime.
==Jan.11 > In an interview, Witte claims that the Czar has the right to annul the October Manifesto

Socialist Revolutionaries.
==Jan.11-17 > The first formal SR party congress is held at Imatra in Finland: it declares itself “a detachment of the international socialism army” and it endorses a renewed terror campaign against officials, but it is ignored when it urges peasants to boycott the election

Far Right.Peasants.
==mid.Jan > The Congress of Marshals of the Nobility endorses moderate reform but backs tough government measures against disorder, and calls for the abolition of peasant communes

Moderates.Czarist Regime.
==Jan.21-22 > The leadership of the moderate-conservative Octobrist Party very nearly breaks with Premier Witte over the government’s repressive policies

Bolsheviks.Mensheviks.
==Jan.21 > The young Menshevik Andrei Vyshinsky is arrested in Baku for organizing a rail strike - ~he is soon involved in the assassinations of police agents

Czarist Regime.Far Left.Peasant Unrest.
==Jan.23 > Witte reports to the Czar that revolutionary forces have been greatly weakened by government crackdowns and that urban revolts have been suppressed, although the rural situation is still dangerous

Czarist violence.Peasants.
==Jan.23 > A proposal is presented to the cabinet to allow the army to use the most extreme measures against rural unrest - ~it is quickly adopted, despite protests from War Minister Rediger

Czarist Regime.
==Jan.25 > The Czar writes: “Thank God, the situation in general has grown much calmer.”

European Relations.
==Jan.27 > The French Ambassador to St. Petersburg doubts that Russia is capable of defeating even Austria

Liberals.
==Jan.29 > The Fourth Congress of the Union of Unions calls for an election boycott, angering many of its members - ~the liberal Union of Unions looses influence

Left-wing violence.Socialist Revolutionaries.Mensheviks.
The beginning of the flood of political assassinations:
==Jan.29 > The Vice-Governor of Tambov is assassinated in a train station by SR member Spiridonova - ~a great wave of assassinations is underway in Russia
==Jan.30 > Tiflis Military Governor Gryazhov is assassinated by the Mensheviks
==Jan.--- > The municipal police in Riga have lost a quarter of their members to terrorist attacks in two years
==Feb.04 > A SR assassin wounds Admiral Chukhnin, the Black Sea Fleet commander

Liberals.
==Jan.31-Feb.06 > The Second Kadet Party Congress endorses a program of liberal reform, but shows signs of drifting to the right  (or Jan.18-Jan.24)

Religion.
==Jan.--- > A ‘Pre-sobor’ Church Congress fails to implement reform

Czarist violence.Mensheviks.Caucasus.
==Jan.--- (OS) >   A punitive expedition breaks the power of the Georgian Mensheviks, with great brutality

Ethnic.Central Asia.
==Jan.--- > The Second Russian Moslem Congress is held

Ethnic.Siberia.
==Jan.--- > Yakut tribesmen hold a Congress in Far Siberia and demand autonomy

Business.Labor.
==early.1906 > Industrialists are cracking down on labor unions

Socialist Revolutionaries.Maximalists.
==early.1906 > The ultra-extreme Maximalist faction splits from the SR

Anarchists.
==early.1906 to 1907 > ~Many Russian anarchist groups are degenerating into banditry

Military.
==winter > Military leaders who surrendered to the Japanese are court martialed - Rozhdestvenski and Smirnov are acquitted; Nebogatov and Stoessel are sentenced to death, and serve long prison terms

Czarist Regime.
==Feb.06 > After reading a report of 36 Jews killed in a pogrom in Gomel, the Czar writes in the margin: “What have I to do with this?”

Left-wing violence.Bolsheviks.
==Feb.09 > The Bolsheviks bomb a St. Petersburg tavern frequented by right-wing URP members, and shoot the victims as they try to flee

Czarist violence.Peasants.
==Feb.13 > Siberia has been fully pacified by punitive expeditions, after many executions and arrests

Peasants.Czarist Regime.
==Feb.14 > Governors are authorized to exile suspect peasants

Economy.Czarist Regime.
==mid.Feb > The government is unsure whether it can meet its payroll - ~the large surpluses of two years earlier have eroded into massive deficits, creating a financial crisis

Czarist Regime.
==mid.Feb > The government partly lifts restrictions imposed on Moscow in the December revolt

Moderates.
==Feb.21 > The First Octobrist Congress opens - deep divisions within the new party, increasing conservative influence

Czarist Regime.
==Feb.25 > Witte complains to the Czar that local authorities are making excessive use of martial law
==Feb.27-Mar.01 > The government discusses transforming the advisory State Council into a conservative legislative body

Liberals.Czarist Regime.
==Feb.--- (OS) >   Conservative Interior Minister Durnovo renews his request for a purge of ‘unreliable’ civil servants - ~sweeping dismissals of liberal officials, causing widespread disruptions of public services

Liberals.Press.Duma.
==Feb.--- (OS) > The Kadet daily newspaper Rech begins publication - ~the liberal Kadets launch a vigorous campaign for the 1st Duma

Labor.
==Feb.--- > The All-Russia Trade Union Conference meets in Moscow: the nation’s first legally permitted trade union conference

Religion.
==Feb.--- > The Holy Synod exiles the reactionary Abbot Arseni for urging attacks on Jews and proclaiming anathema on the intelligentsia

Czarist Regime.
==Mar.01 > The Czar tells a monarchist delegation “The autocracy will remain as it was formerly.”

Duma.Czarist Regime.
==Mar.05 > An Imperial Manifesto is issued on the Duma’s legal structure, restricting its powers and linking it with the government-dominated State Council - the liberal Kadets are outraged

Radicalized Military.
==Mar.06 > The naval mutineer Lt. Schmidt is executed near Sebastopol

Jews.Czarist Regime.
==Mar.09 > The Council of Ministers orders provincial officials to prevent anti-Semitic pogroms - the order is widely ignored

Duma.
==mid.Mar to late.Apr > The first Duma elections are held, continuing until July in some areas: the first national elections in Russian history - ~the government is at first confident of a conservative victory

Labor.Czarist Regime.
==Mar.17 (Mar.04.OS) > Weak labor reform: workers are granted a partial right to form unions… but not to strike - the rights of assembly and association are granted… subject to government approval - the Czarist regime is hedging on its pledges to establish civil liberties

Peasants.Czarist Regime.
==Mar.17 > A land organization commission is established

Radicalized Military.
==Mar.18 > General Kholschevnikov is charged with actively aiding revolutionaries in the Trans-Baikal region in late 1905 - the government is shocked

Czarist Regime.
==Mar.18 > The Council of Ministers urges rescinding martial law wherever possible - the recommendation is ignored

Duma.Czarist Regime.
==Mar.21 > The government denies the Duma any control over the military and court budgets

Duma.Liberals.
==late.Mar > It is becoming obvious that the Kadets and the left opposition are sweeping the Duma election

Czarist Regime.
==late.Mar > Evidently in deep depression, Witte prepares to resign as Premier

Peasants.
==late.Mar > Famine strikes the Volga Basin

Left-wing violence.
Rising left-wing violence:
==Mar.30 > A SR group ‘expropriates’ 800,000 rubles from the Merchant Bank of Moscow
==Apr.02 > SR Maximalists rob the Moscow Society for Mutual Aid of 800,000 rubles
==Apr.04 > SR police informer Tatarov is assassinated in Warsaw
==Apr.07 > The SR blow up the Governor of Tver
==Apr.10 > Gapon, the former labor leader turned police informer, is lynched in an isolated Finnish cottage by order of SR terrorist leader/police agent Azef
==spring > The Anarchist Workers’ Conspiracy is committing terrorist acts against employers
==spring to fall > An intense terrorist campaign is underway in Latvia
==May.06 > Governor-general of Moscow Dubasov is seriously wounded by SR assassins -  on the same day, the Governor-general of Ekaterinoslav is assassinated
==May.14 > Terrorists kill the Commander of the Port of St. Petersburg K. Kuzmich

Press.Czarist Regime.
==Mar.31 > New laws increase the government’s control of the press - ~a crackdown on the freedom of the press is underway

Labor.Bolsheviks.
==Mar.--- > ~Severe unemployment in Russia - a ‘Soviet of the Unemployed’ is established in St. Petersburg, dominated by the Bolsheviks

Radicalized Military.
==Mar.--- (OS) >   A secret ‘Union of Russian Army Officers’ is established to further liberalism

Peasants.Siberia.
==Mar.--- > The government proclaims freedom of internal colonization - ~a great wave of peasant migration to Siberia is underway through 1909

Czarist Regime.
==Mar.--- > Landowners oust the progressive Agriculture Minister Kutler

Ethnic.Ukraine.
==Mar.--- > The ban on the Ukrainian language is lifted

European Relations.Economy.
==Apr.16 > A French-dominated banking consortium signs the largest foreign loan ever made to Russia, strengthening the government - the radical writer Gorky exclaims "I spit in your eyes, beautiful France!"

Duma.Czarist Regime.
==Apr.20-25 > Crown Council meetings formulate the Fundamental Laws, without consulting the Duma

Bolsheviks.Mensheviks.
==Apr.23-May.08 (Apr.10-25.OS) > The Stockholm RSDRP Congress (aka the 4th Party or ‘Unity’ Congress): the Mensheviks, the Bolsheviks, and the Jewish Bund nominally reunite, but actually continue as separate parties - Lenin sets up a secret Bolshevik Central Committee, advocates an armed rising and the nationalization of land - Stalin proposes distributing land to the peasants to revolutionize them - the Bolsheviks ignore condemnations of their ‘expropriations’

Duma.Czarist Regime.
==Apr.24 > A secret draft of the Fundamental Laws is leaked to the press

Labor.
==Apr.25 > The St. Petersburg City Council meets with the ‘Soviet of the Unemployed’, and pledges aid programs

Czarist Regime.
==Apr.27 > Premier Witte secretly resigns in disgust over the oppressive policies of conservative Interior Minister Durnovo

Peasant Unrest.
==Apr.30 > The government enacts tough but ineffective laws against agricultural strikes

Czarist Regime.
==Apr.--- > Authorities have arrested 3,300 for political crimes since Oct.1905

Labor.Business.
==Apr.--- > The All-Russian Manufacturers’ League is established to oppose workers’ demands - ~reviving labor unrest to the summer

Jews.
==Apr.--- > Zionists establish the Seymist Party

Ethnic.Siberia.
==Apr.--- > Yakut leaders are arrested - the Yakut national movement in eastern Siberia collapses

Czarist Regime.
==Apr.--- > The penal colony on Sakhalin Island is closed
==spring > Martial law is wholly or partly in force in 69% of the provinces and regions

Liberals.Czarist Regime.
==May.01 > The government ignores liberal suggestions to ease the conservative Fundamental Laws

Czarist Regime.
==May.02 > The departing Prime Minister Witte tells Kokovtsov “All Russia is one vast madhouse...”

Liberals.
==May.04-08 > The Third Kadet Party Congress - the confident liberals call for universal adult suffrage with votes for women, reform of labor, agrarian and nationality laws, and full amnesty for political prisoners

Czarist Regime.
==May.05 (Apr.22.OS) > Prime Minister Witte’s resignation is made public

Duma.Czarist Regime.
==May.06-07 (Apr.23-24.OS) > The Czar promulgates the conservative Fundamental Laws, undercutting the Duma’s powers: ministers are responsible only to the Czar; the Czar is able to rule by decree when Duma is not in session

Czarist Regime.
==May.07 > The Czar installs the reactionary nonentity Goremykin as Premier, who chooses a generally mediocre cabinet - on May.09, the vigorous Stolypin is offered the Interior Ministry

Press.Czarist Regime.
==May.09 > A new press law further increases government control

Duma.Czarist Regime.
==May.10-Jul.22 (Apr.27-Jul.09.OS) > The First Duma meets, dominated by the liberal Kadets - on May.10, a frigid reception for the Duma deputies is held in the Winter Palace by the Czar and his court

Czarist Regime.
==May.11 > The first session of reformed State Council

Diplomacy.
==May.12 > Izvolsky replaces Lamsdorf as Russian Foreign Minister

Labor.
==May.14 > May Day in Russia: widespread strikes throughout the Empire

Peasant Unrest.
==mid.May to mid.summer > Revived rural unrest

Duma.Czarist Regime.
Relations sour between the First Duma and the Czarist regime:
==May.15-18 > The Duma debates the reformist Answer to the Throne - the government considers denouncing the Duma
==May.18 > The Duma unanimously adopts the Answer to the Throne, calling for sweeping liberal reform - the Czar refuses to directly receive the document
==May.18 > The government press launches severe attacks on the Duma - ~Prime Minister Goremykin refuses to answer queries on the matter
==May.26 (May.13.OS) > Premier Goremykin contemptuously rejects the Duma’s demands for democratic reform - the outraged Duma calls on the government to resign - the start of open struggle between the Duma and the government
==May.27 > The Cabinet decides to disband the Duma, with only Izvolsky and Stolypin urging moderation

Duma.Peasants.
==May.21 > The ‘Project of 42’: a moderate Kadet land reform bill is introduced

Bolsheviks.
==May.22 > In St. Petersburg, Lenin makes his first public speech, in which he denounces the Mensheviks, the Kadets, and the Duma

Duma.
==May.31 > A bill is introduced in the Duma to abolish capital punishment, triggering angry attacks on the government

Mutiny.
==May-Jul (OS) > Renewed wave of army mutinies

Peasant Unrest.
==Jun.01 > Interior Minister Stolypin warns local authorities of rising peasant unrest

Duma.Peasants.
==Jun.01 > The government’s conservative proposals for agrarian reform anger the Duma

Far Right.
==Jun.03-10 > The First Congress of the influential, reactionary United Nobility

Duma.Peasants.
==Jun.05 > The ‘Project of 104’: a land reform bill by the radical Trudovik faction is introduced
==Jun.06 > Trudovik deputies begin shouting down government ministers addressing the Duma

European Relations.
==Jun.07 > Britain and Russia begin detailed negotiations

Bolsheviks.
==Jun.14 > In an article in Vpered, Lenin publicly breaks with the Mensheviks over their willingness to work with the liberal Kadets in the Duma

Right-wing violence.Jews.
Anti-Semitic excesses:
==Jun.14-16 > Eight hundred Jews are killed or injured in a pogrom in Bialystok - troops aid looters and attack Jewish self-defense forces
==Jun.15 > The Duma criticizes the government’s reaction to the Bialystok pogrom
==Jun.18 > Fifty Jews are killed in a pogrom at Staroselts, near Grodno
==Jun.20 > The Czar is funding anti-Semitic propaganda
==Jun.21 > Angry debates in the Duma on government involvement in anti-Semitic pogroms
==Jul.05 > A Duma committee concludes that the bloody Bialystok pogrom was organized by local officials  (see Jul.20)
==Jul.08 > The military command in Bialystok commends its troops for “glorious service” in the pogrom of Jun 14

Radicalized Military.
==Jun.15 > Stolypin warns that Kronstadt naval base has become a center of revolutionary activity - ~the government attempts to counter radical influences among its troops and sailors by indoctrinating them with right-wing propaganda

Labor.
==mid.Jun to late.Jun > ~A rash of strikes erupts throughout Russia

Duma.Peasants.
==Jun.19 > The ‘Project of 33’: an ultra-radical land reform bill is introduced
==Jun.23 > In the Duma, the radical Trudovik faction resolves to form local committees to politicize the peasantry 

Mutiny.
==Jun.22-23 > The elite Preobrazhensky Guards stage a mutiny in St. Petersburg

Duma.Czarist Regime.
==late.Jun > Liberal leader Milyukov meets with Trepov - talks between the government and the Duma to mid Jul; the brief possibility of a liberal government
==late.Jun > The reactionary Comptroller Schwanebach urges the Czar to dissolve the Duma and decree voting restrictions

Czarist Regime.
==Jun.29 > The start of persistent rumors that Goremykin’s government is about to fall

Peasant Unrest.
==Jun.--- (OS) > Rural unrest is growing increasingly violent

Bolsheviks.Caucasus.
==Jun.--- > Stalin marries his first wife (??? - information about Stalin’s first marriage is uncertain)

Duma.Czarist Regime.
==Jul.01 > The Czar meets with the moderate conservative Shipov and considers forming a coalition government

Mutiny.
==Jul.01-11 > The 7th Cavalry Reserve Regiment violently mutinies in Tambov

Duma.Peasants.
==Jul.03 > The Czarist regime flatly rejects the compulsory redistribution of land - the Duma is enraged

Duma.Czarist Regime.
==Jul.03 > The Duma passes a bill outlawing capital punishment after furious deliberations - ~the bill stalls in the State Council

Left-wing violence.
==Jul.11 > Admiral Chukhnin, the suppressor of the Schmidt mutiny, is assassinated in Sebastopol
==Jul.15 > An assassination attempt is made on Trepov

Duma.Czarist Regime.
The fall of the First Duma:
==Jul.17-18 > The Duma passes the ‘Appeal to the People’ agrarian reform program, in effect calling for the Duma to assume executive power
==Jul.18 > The Czar abandons any possibility of a liberal government
==Jul.19 > The Cabinet secretly votes to dissolve the Duma - Milyukov warns of a civil war if the Duma is dissolved
==Jul.20 (Jul.07.OS) > Stolypin is chosen to replace Goremykin as Prime Minister - ~Trepov looses influence
==Jul.20 > The Duma demands that the instigators of the Bialystok pogrom be punished and that the government resign
==Jul.21 > Troops are moving into St. Petersburg
==Jul.22 (Jul.09.OS) > Troops occupy the Tauride Palace [early morning]: the First Duma is forcibly dissolved - displays of force by the government throughout Russia - a radical manifesto by Milyukov and the Kadet leaders calls for civil disobedience [morning] - widespread anti-government demonstrations to July 24
==Jul.22.[1100.PM]-Jul.23.[late afternoon] > A Kadet conference reluctantly adopts the Vyborg Manifesto calling for passive resistance - the public response is weak
==Jul.23 > The Peasants’ Union calls for civil disobedience
==Jul.24 (Jul.11.OS) > Premier Stolypin ruthlessly suppresses the liberal Kadet Party: Kadet headquarters in St. Petersburg are closed - a purge of Kadet members from government posts begins - ~the start of waves of arrests of the liberal opposition
==Jul.25 > The RSDRP and the Trudoviks call on the military to revolt
==Jul.28 > The Terioki Conference: the Kadet leadership begins to retreat from the radical Vyborg Manifesto

Czarist Regime.
==Jul.26 > Stolypin announces goals of pacification and social reform in an interview with Reuters

Moderates.Czarist Regime.
==Jul.28-Aug.02 > Stolypin attempts to recruit moderates for his government, but refuses to pledge to enact any liberal reforms

Socialist Revolutionaries.
==Jul.29-Aug.10 > The SR terrorist Savinkov escapes from prison in Sebastopol and sails to Romania

Unrest.
==Jul.29 > British Ambassador Nicolson sees even odds of an imminent “general upheaval...which will sweep away dynasty, government, and much else.”

Right-wing violence.Liberals.
==Jul.31 > Kadet land reformer Gertsenshtein (or Herzenstein) is murdered by the URP - his killers are later pardoned by the Czar and investigations into their connections with the right are squelched

Far Right.
==summer > Liberal Zemstvos are passing into the hands of the conservative gentry - ~the start of a general swing to the right

Education.Far Left.
==summer > Universities are reopened, with greatly decreased radical activity

Mutiny.
==Aug.01-02 > A naval mutiny at Kronstadt is quickly suppressed
==Aug.03 > Mutiny briefly breaks out on the cruiser Pamiat Azova off Revel

Labor.Far Left.
==Aug.03-07 > A general strike called by the RSDRP fizzles

Left-wing violence.
==Aug.03 > The Governor of Samara is blown up by terrorists

Bolsheviks.Mensheviks.
==Aug.04 > The government arrests the St. Petersburg committee of the RSDRP

Peasant Unrest.
==Aug.14-26 > Intense rural violence in the Telav region near Tiflis - the authorities temporarily loose control of the area

Left-wing violence.Maximalists.Socialist Revolutionaries.
The crest of the great wave of left-wing terror:
==Aug.25 (Aug.12.OS) > SR Maximalists blow up Stolypin’s home, killing thirty victims - ~the height of revolutionary terrorism to 1907
==Aug.26 > The SR assassinates Min, the general responsible for crushing the Moscow revolt in Dec.1905
==Aug.27 > The Czar demands harsh new anti-terror laws
==late.summer > A Bolshevik newspaper urges intensified terrorism
==Sep.01 > Stolypin orders field courts-martial for civilians, with immediate sentencing and execution; the decree provokes nearly universal outrage - ~a state of emergency has been extended throughout most of Russia, as local governments are given extraordinary powers - ~arrests break up the ultra-left Maximalists into disconnected groups
==Sep.27 > The St. Petersburg SR terrorist committee endorses the random assassination of street policemen

Peasants.Czarist Regime.
==Aug.25 > Land belonging to the Imperial family is transferred to the peasants’ land bank for purchase - Stolypin’s agrarian reform is underway
==Aug.--- (OS) > Rural unrest begins to decline
==Sep.09 > State lands are transferred to the land bank for purchase by individual peasants

Ethnic.Central Asia.
==Aug.--- > The Third Moslem Congress splits between moderates and radicals

Labor.Business.
==late.summer > Renewed lock-outs by employers, and police crack-downs on unions

Ethnic Unrest.Caucasus.
==late.summer > The ‘Dfai’ (Caucasian Moslem Union) forms, using terror against both Armenians and Russians

Czarist Regime.
==Sep.15 > The death of Czarist adviser Trepov - rumors of suicide

Moderates.
==Sep.18 > The Octobrist Party splits: Shipov denounces Guchkov’s support of the harsh field courts-martial law and leaves the party

Education.
==Sep.--- > The student inspectorate is abolished

Bolsheviks.
==Sep.--- (OS) > Lenin is ready to end the Bolshevik boycott of the Duma

Labor.Far Left.Bolsheviks.
==Oct.02-Nov.15 > The St. Petersburg Soviet is put on trial - despite strong public support for the accused and a brilliant defense by Trotsky, the main defendants are sentenced to life deportation to Siberia

Peasants.Siberia.
==Oct.02 > Altai lands in Siberia are opened for peasant settlement

Liberals.
==Oct.07-11 > Helsingfors Conference: the liberal Kadet Party officially abandons its radical Vyborg Manifesto

Left-wing violence.
Increasing expropriations (robberies) by the revolutionary left:
==Oct.13 > Lenin openly endorses mass expropriations
==late.Oct > ~Revolutionary assassinations begin to slacken off, though the number of expropriations continue to rise
==Oct.27 > SR Maximalists stage a violent robbery of 400,000 rubles of state funds in St. Petersburg
==Oct.--- > In the last year, terrorists have killed or wounded 3,611 government officials and have committed 1,951 ‘expropriations’, seizing about 7 million rubles
==fall > A Maximalist conference endorses mass terror rather than individual attacks
==fall > The SR endorses ‘expropriations’ of government funds and weapons

Education.Far Left.
==Oct.16 > Stolypin reverses the closure and partly restores the autonomy of Moscow University, but effectively isolates it from any revolutionary activity

Peasants.Czarist Regime.
==Oct.18 (Oct.05.OS) > Most legal restrictions on peasants as a class are abolished

Socialist Revolutionaries.
==Oct.26 > SR leader Gershuni escapes from Siberia

Rasputin.Czarist Regime.
==Oct.26 > Unaccompanied for the first time, Rasputin pays a visit to the Czar and his children - Rasputin begins to establish a rapport with the Imperial family

Religion.
==Oct.30 > Stolypin ends restrictions on the Old Believers and other dissenting sects

Far Right.Czarist Regime.
==fall > ~ Stolypin’s government is actively courting the extreme right

Labor.Far Left.
==fall > The unemployed movement declines in the face of government hostility

Peasants.
==fall > An extremely poor harvest causes famine in Russia to 1907

Bolsheviks.Mensheviks.
==Nov.16-30 > The First All-Russian RSDRP Conference at Tammerfors - local socialist alliances with liberals are allowed

Peasants.Czarist Regime.
==early.Nov > Peasant rights of land ownership are recognized
==Nov.22 (Nov.09.OS) > Stolypin’s main agrarian reform allows the privatization of communal lands - the rapid rise of independent farmers - on Nov.28, the land bank is authorized to make loans to peasants wanting to leave their communes

European Relations.
==Nov.25 > The French military attaché reports that Russian officers believe that Russia is currently “almost valueless as a military ally against Germany”

Czarist Regime.
==Nov-Dec (OS) > The Lidval Scandal: Deputy Interior Minister Gurko is ousted over shady dealings in famine relief

Left-wing violence.
==late.1906 > ~In the Urals, the rural terrorist Lbov band grows powerful

Duma.Czarist Regime.
==mid.Dec > The government announces that the Second Duma will convene on Mar.06 - campaigning soon begins with the RSDRP taking part, including the Bolsheviks - strong government intervention against the liberal parties

Bolsheviks.
==Dec.19 > Leonid Brezhnev is born in Dneprodzerzhinsk in the Ukraine

Jews.Czarist Regime.
==Dec.23 > Citing his accountability to God, the Czar vetoes a proposal to ease laws against the Jews

Religion.Czarist Regime.
==Dec.25 > The government summons the clergy to become active in the elections

Far Right.Czarist Regime.
==late.Dec > The government is making regular, large payoffs to reactionary groups

Liberals.Czarist Regime.
==Dec.--- > ~The liberal Kadets applaud a SR assassination attempt on Admiral Dubasov

Jews.Liberals.
==end.1906 > Russian Zionist Congress at Helsingfors - ~Russian Jews are loosing interest in cooperating with progressives

Czarist Regime.
==1906 > Most corporal punishment is abolished

Far Left.Baltic.
==1906 > The Estonian Socialist Party is established

Bolsheviks.
==1906 > Lenin publishes Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism
==1906 > Molotov joins the Bolsheviks

Economy.
==1906 > Russia is beginning to recover from recession

Business.Siberia.
==1906 > The Lena goldfields in eastern Siberia begin to turn large profits

Miscellaneous.Central Asia.
==1906 > The Russian rail link to Bukhara in Central Asia is completed, despite local protests that railroads are satanic - the Tashkent-Orenburg line is also completed, linking Turkestan with Russia


 

Russia: Introduction   ///   (1)  1904: Prelude to Revolution
(2)  Jan-Sep.1905: Russia in Chaos   ///  (3)  Oct-Dec.1905: The Crisis of the Revolution
(5)  1907-1908: The Defeat of the Liberals   ///   (6)  1909-1911: Order Restored
(7)  1912-Jul.1914: Renewed Unrest   ///   Biographies and Glossary

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