Prime Minister Peter Stolypin

(6)  1909-1911: Order Restored


Far Left.Police.
==winter > Okhrana General Gerasimov reports that not a single revolutionary organization is still functioning in the Russian Empire

European Relations.
==Mar.08 > Guchkov reveals to the Duma that the Russian Army is completely unprepared to fight over Bosnia - the admission emboldens Germany and Austria
==Mar.22 (Mar.09.OS) > Russia yields to a German ultimatum and recognizes the Austrian annexation of Bosnia - the end of Bosnian Crisis: deep Russian bitterness toward Germany and Austria-Hungary

==late.Mar > The Czar ousts War Minister Rediger for failing to silence Guchkov’s criticisms of the military; Sukhomlinov holds office as War Minister to Jun.1915 - the Russian Army finally begins to modernize and expand... haltingly

Culture.Far Left.
==spring > The Vyekhi (Vekhi) Articles: the Russian intelligentsia begins to break with the revolutionary movement

==beginning.May >Lenin’s Materialism and Empiriocriticism condemns Bogdanov’s ultra-left ‘Ultimatist’ Bolshevik faction

Duma.Czarist Regime.
==May.09 > The Czar vetoes the Naval General Staff Bill, thwarting the Duma’s attempts to influence military affairs

Ethnic.Czarist Regime.
==May.--- > Stolypin opens a campaign of repression of national minorities

Left-wing violence.Socialist Revolutionaries.
==May.--- > The SR 5th Party Council ends support for agrarian and factory terrorism

Czarist Regime.
==Jun.19 > Years after they were imposed, extraordinary security measures are finally rescinded in Moscow

==Jul.04-13 > The Bolshevik editorial board expels the ultra-left Bogdanov group
==Jul.07 > Stalin escapes from internal exile, and soon returns to Baku
==Jul.18 > The future Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko is born in White Russia to a peasant family
==summer > In all of Russia, only five or six Bolshevik committees are still functioning; most former Bolsheviks have abandoned party work

Rasputin.Czarist Regime.
==summer > ~Rasputin convinces the Czar to rescind the exile of the reactionary demagogue monk Iliodor: Rasputin’s first purely political act

Left-wing violence.Bolsheviks.
==Sep.08 > A bloody Bolshevik train robbery at Miass in the Urals nets 60,000 rubles and 24 kilograms of gold

Education.Far Left.
==Sep.--- > A brief wave of student strikes is provoked by the government’s repressive policies against women and Jews

Left-wing violence.Socialist Revolutionaries.
==Dec.21 > SR terrorist/police agent Petrov kills St. Petersburg security police chief Karpov with a bomb

==Dec.--- > The far-left Ultimatists (including Bogdanov, Lunacharsky, and Alexinsky) establish the extreme Vpered group

==1909 > The Russian Army is finally fully equipped with quick-firing artillery
==1909 > The Russian Navy orders its first dreadnoughts
==1909 > The War Ministry organizes an aviation branch

Culture.Far Left.
==1909 > The autobiographical novel The Pale Horse by the leading SR terrorist Savinkov portrays revolutionaries as corrupt cynics

==1909 > Trotsky’s The Year 1905 is published in German in Vienna

==1909 > The famous anarchist Kropotkin publishes La Grande Revolution in Paris
==1909 > An anarchist manifesto denounces the “poisonous breath of civilization” and proclaims “Everything is ours, outside us is only death . . . All to the street!  Forward! Destroy!  Kill!”


==early.Jan > RSDRP Paris Conference: the Mensheviks weakly reaffirm party unity over Lenin’s objections - the low point of Lenin’s career; his hold on the Bolsheviks grows weak - the Mensheviks miss the opportunity to decisively defeat Lenin’s attempts to split the party

Rasputin.Czarist Regime.
==Jan.--- > Rasputin’s name begins to appear in the press - ~the start of opposition to his influence in court circles - ~several reports of  his excesses reach the Czar, whose only response is to punish those who spoke out

==beginning.1910 > The  Moscow Bolshevik organization is headed by a police agent

==Mar.21 > The moderate Octobrist Guchkov is elected President of the Duma, to the Czar’s annoyance - a slight revival of public interest in politics is occuring

==Apr.05 > Stalin is again arrested in Baku, and is imprisoned and exiled to Mar.1912

Duma.Ethnic.Czarist Regime.
==May.20 > Attempting to further suppress Poles and Jews, Stolypin introduces a bill to establish Russian-controlled Zemstvos in the western provinces - it meets strong opposition in the Duma

Left-wing violence.
==late.May > Terrorists have been responsible for about 17,000 casualties since 1905

==May.--- > Labor leader Malinovsky becomes a police agent

Peasants.Czarist Regime.
==Jun.27 > Further land reform extends hereditary tenure - the rise of independent farmers accelerates

==Jun.--- > A massive cholera outbreak begins in the Donets Basin - on Jul.20, the Council of Ministers calls for assistance from the Red Cross

==mid.1910 > A wave of arrests wrecks the Bolshevik organization in Moscow and central Russia

Czarist Regime.
==Jul.20 > Extraordinary security measures are finally rescinded in St. Petersburg

==Sep.--- > Izvolsky transfers to the Paris embassy, and is replaced as Foreign Minister by the erratic Sergei Sazonov, to Aug 1916

==Sep.--- > Thirty trainees are enrolled at the Russian Army’s first flight schools

==fall > Inessa Armand joins the Bolsheviks in Paris, and probably becomes Lenin’s lover

European Relations.
==Nov.03-04 > The Czar visits the Kaiser, and the tentative Potsdam Agreement is reached, but the Russian-German accord soon collapses

Far Left.Education.
==Nov.20 > Death of Tolstoy at Astapovo train station, at age 82, sets off student demonstrations; riots at the University of Odessa

Socialist Revolutionaries.
==Dec.11 > Sazonov, the assassin of Plehve, commits suicide in Siberia to protest brutality in the prison system

==end.1910 > Russian Plan 19 is in effect - greatly improved mobilization plans against Germany, with a plan for an immediate strong attack on East Prussia to aid France in the event of war - ~Russia military power is rapidly reviving

==end.1910 > The last remnants of the Moscow Bolshevik organization are arrested - including the young Nikolai Bukharin

==1910 > A naval aviation training school is opened in Sebastopol

Education.Czarist Regime.
==1910 > The reactionary Casso is named Education Minister to 1911; he interferes with the autonomy of the University of Moscow

Far Right.
==1910 > The ultra-right URP splits with the ouster of its leader Dubrovin (or 1909)

==1910 > The anarchist Nestor Makhno is sentenced to life imprisonment for the assassination of a police chief - he is reprieved from a death sentence due to his youth

==1910 > The Bolsheviks replace the paper Novaia zhizn with Zvezda (Star), to 1912

==1910 > The Ukrainian cultural association Prosvita is suppressed

Ethnic.Central Asia.
==1910-1914 > The new Emir of Bukhara, Alim Khan, enacts moderate reforms before realigning with conservative Moslems

Jews.Czarist Regime.
==1910 > A mass expulsion of Jews from Kiev occurs


Education.Czarist Regime.Police.
==Jan.24 (Jan.11.OS) > University demonstrations are outlawed, provoking bitter student strikes to Mar - renewed hostility between the government and the intelligentsia
==Feb.--- > A large part of the administration of Russian universities is transferred to the police

Rasputin.Czarist Regime.
==early.Mar > Rasputin is temporarily banished by the reluctant Czar - Rasputin tours the Holy Land to early summer

Duma.Czarist Regime.
The struggle over Stolypin’s western Zemstvo bill (see May 20.1910):
==Feb.14 > Stolypin’s bill for western Zemstvos is introduced into the conservative State Council - strong opposition from the right
==Mar.17 > The State Council rejects Stolypin’s bill, partly at the Czar’s instigation
==Mar.18 (Mar.05.OS) > By threatening to resign, Stolypin compels the Czar to agree to enact the western Zemstvo bill by decree - Stolypin angers the Czar and alienates the Octobrists and his other moderate supporters
==Mar.25-28 > The Duma and the State Council are prorogued
==Mar.27 > Stolypin’s Zemstvo bill is promulgated by decree
==May.10 > The Duma censures Stolypin for forcing through the Zemstvo bill

Rasputin.Czarist Regime.
==late.Mar > Rasputin’s influence forces Stolypin to back off from trying to discipline the reactionary monk Iliodor

Bolshevik scandals:
==May.27 > The Bolsheviks seize the RSDRP records and cash box
==Jun.10 > A RSDRP plenum controlled by Bolsheviks endorses the Bolshevik seizure of Party funds - the Mensheviks furiously protest
==early.summer > Lenin is compelled to turn over part of the Schmidt fortune to the German Social Democrats after the scandal over Bolshevik finances

Peasants.Czarist Regime.
==Jun.11 > Stolypin further extends the rights of individual landowners

Rasputin.Czarist Regime.
==summer > After returning to St. Petersburg from his temporary exile, Rasputin begins exercising real political power

Jews.Czarist Regime.
==Aug.03 (Jul.21.OS)-Oct.1913 > A Jewish clerk is arrested in Kiev on blatantly trumped up charges of ritual murder, under pressure from the Minister of Justice: the Beilis Case generates international disgust against the Russian government

==Aug.31 > The General Staff reports that Russia will be unready for a war against Germany until 1913

==Aug.--- > The hard-line Leninist Ordzhonikidze slips into Russia to organize underground committees which claim to represent the whole RSDRP - ~the government is tolerating Bolshevik activity in the hopes of splitting the RSDRP
==Aug.--- > The unbalanced Bolshevik terrorist Kamo escapes from a Tiflis prison after years of pretending (?) to be insane
==Sep.12 > Bukharin escapes from Siberia and flees abroad to 1917

Left-wing violence.Czarist Regime.
The assassination of Stolypin:
==Sep.14 (Sep.01.OS) > In Kiev, while in the presence of the Czar, Premier Stolypin is shot by a police informer [evening]
==Sep.18 > Stolypin dies of wounds
==Sep.19 > Kokovtsoff serves as Prime Minister, to Jan.1914
==Sep.24 > Stolypin’s assassin Bogrov is secretly executed - the records of his interrogation are evidently destroyed

Rasputin.Czarist Regime.
Rasputin’s rising influence:
==fall > Rasputin has the Czar appoint Sabler Minister for Church Affairs - Rasputin dominates church appointments until his death
==late.1911 > Rasputin’s influence in the royal court is becoming general public knowledge
==Dec.29 > Rasputin is violently confronted by his former ally Iliodor and other opponents in the church - the ‘holy fool’ Mitya tries to rip off his penis as Bishop Hermogenes attacks him with a heavy cross - Iliodor is soon arrested, and Hermogenes is exiled

==Nov.20 > Speaking at a socialist funeral in Paris, Lenin confidently announces that “world bourgeois parliamentarism is drawing to a close.”

US Relations.Jews.
==Dec.21 > The US Congress terminates its 1832 commerce treaty with Russia over Russia’s refusal to honor passports held by American Jews

==1911 > Severe famine to 1913, though Russia continues to export a fifth of its annual grain production

Education.Jews.Czarist Regime.
==1911 > More restrictive government policies in the universities: increased expulsions of students - tightened educational restrictions on Jews

==1911 > ~The Russian anarchist movement is slowly recovering
==1911 > The exiled anarchist Kropotkin predicts that a great war is imminent

==1911 > Alexandra Kollontai begins writing that the freeing of sexual relations must be part of any fundamental political revolution

==1911 > The first Russian naval aviation unit is formed in Sebastopol - Russian aircraft are practicing attacks on submarines


Russia: Introduction   ///   (1)  1904: Prelude to Revolution
(2)  Jan-Sep.1905: Russia in Chaos   ///   (3)  Oct-Dec.1905: The Crisis of the Revolution
(4)  1906: Repression and Terror   ///   (5)  1907-1908: The Defeat of the Liberals and the Decline of the Left
(7)  1912-Jul.1914: Renewed Unrest   ///   Biographies and Glossary