Theodore Roosevelt


(1)  The Height of the Roosevelt Era, 1904-1906


1904

Latin American Relations.
==Jan.04 > In a message to Congress, Theodore Roosevelt denies any US government involvement with the revolution that led to Panamanian independence  (see Mar.23.1911 and Apr.06.1914)

South.Ethnic.
==Jan.19 > The extreme racist James Kimble Vardaman is inaugurated Governor of Mississippi - he calls for the abolition of citizen’s rights for blacks and soon pushes through laws intensifying racial segregation

Government.Military.
==Feb.01 > William H. Taft replaces the reformer Elihu Root as Secretary of War

South.Urban.
==Feb.07-08 > A massive fire, the nation’s largest since the 1871 Chicago fire, destroys Baltimore’s entire business section

Latin American Relations.
==Feb.10 > Roosevelt writes William Bayard Hale that regarding the “weak and chaotic governments and people south of us... it is our duty, when it becomes absolutely inevitable, to police these countries in the interest of order and civilization.”

Politics.
==Feb.15 > Republican Party boss Mark Hanna dies - Theodore Roosevelt’s control of the party is strengthened

Diplomacy.
==Feb.16 > The future American diplomat George Kennan is born in Milwaukee

Popular Culture.
==Feb.18 > Theodore Roosevelt has lunch with Buffalo Bill

Pacific Coast.Immigration.
==Feb.23 > Hearst's San Francisco Chronicle begins a demagogic press campaign on the menace of Japanese immigration


William Randolph Hearst

Politics.Press.
==Mar.01 > The New York Evening Post acidly comments on William Randolph Hearst’s attempt at the presidency: “...a low voluptuary trying to sting his senses to a fresh thrill by turning from private to public corruption is a new horror in American politics.”

Government.Business.
==Mar.03 > It is reported that despite scores of Federal suits, American railroads blatantly continue massive rebating - ~rising calls for regulation of rail rates

Government.Law.Business.
==Mar.14 > The Northern Securities case: the Supreme Court orders the dissolution of a vast railroad merger - Roosevelt’s first trust-busting victory - Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes makes his first dissent

West.Labor.
State authorities brutally respond to the south Colorado coal miners’ strike:
==Mar.23 > Governor Peabody orders the state militia into the south Colorado coal fields - martial law is promptly and brutally imposed - union leaders are provoked into continuing the failing miners’ strike
==Mar.26 > The Colorado Militia begins the deportation of union leaders
==Mar.27 > Colorado authorities order 74-year-old labor agitator Mother Jones out of the state - union president Moyer is arrested for flag desecration after criticizing the Colorado state government in a poster that featured an American flag
==Apr.21 > Radical union leader Big Bill Haywood is arrested and beaten in Denver by Colorado National Guardsmen   (see Jun.06)

Politics.
Mar.--- > The suppressed Bristow Report on corruption in the Post Office leaks to the public - many Congressmen are indirectly implicated

Popular Culture.
Apr.30 > The Louisiana Purchase Exposition opens in St. Louis: it popularizes hamburgers, ice cream cones, peanut butter and iced tea, and features America's first sizable automobile exhibit - a detective from Scotland Yard demonstrates fingerprinting

Politics.Far Left.
May.01 > The second national Socialist Party convention opens in Chicago - Eugene Debs is unanimously nominated for President on May.05

Latin American Relations.
==May.02 > The United States government buys out the French Panama Canal Company for $40 million, after negotiations are kept “permanently secret” by order of Attorney General Philander C. Knox; - ~rumors eventually emerge of pay-offs to French power-brokers and American officials (or Apr.23) (the money is paid May.09)
==May.04 > Panama formally cedes the Canal Zone to the United States

Islamic Relations.
The Pedicaris Affair:
==May.18 > The Moroccan brigand Raisuni kidnaps the supposed American citizen Pedicaris from Tangiers and demands $70,000 ransom and extensive political powers
==Jun.22 > The US dramatically cables “We want Pedicaris alive or Raisuni dead.”
==Jun.25 > Pedicaris is released after Raisuni’s demands are met

Latin American Relations.
==May.20 > Roosevelt first makes the claims that the United States has the right to intervene in Latin America through a speech by Elihu Root - the claim is originally largely directed against the threat of European intervention (see Dec.06)

Pacific Coast.Politics.
==Jun.06 > Oregon adopts direct primaries for party nominations

West.Labor.
The Colorado coal miners’ strikes are crushed:
==Jun.06 > A bomb explodes at the Independence train station near Cripple Creek, killing thirteen strikebreakers - anti-union vigilante groups respond by sacking union halls - mine owners oust the local sheriff at gunpoint and purge pro-union public officials - hundreds of union men are arrested and deported
==Jun.08 > A clash between miners and state militia at Dunnville leaves six strikers dead - vigilantes wreck the press rooms of the pro-union Victor Record
==Jun.23 > Local unions vote to continue the hopeless south Colorado coal strike even after the national union has withdrawn support
==Jun.24 > Troops deport 22 striking ‘troublemakers’ from the Telluride district.
==Jun.--- > The radicalized Western Federation of Miners calls for the amalgamation of the entire working class into one union
==Oct.12 > The south Colorado strike is officially ended - ~the Cripple Creek strike finally collapses - the Colorado miners’ unions are temporarily broken

East Asian Relations.
==Jun.13 > Roosevelt warns the Japanese ambassador against the dangers of Japan entering “into a general career of insolence and aggression” - ~he writes “I am perfectly well aware that if (the Japanese win their war with Russia) it may possibly mean a struggle between them and us in the future.”

Northeast.
==Jun.15 > The excursion ship General Slocum burns on the East River, killing 1,030 passengers - the German neighborhood on New York’s Lower East Side is devastated

Politics.
==Jun.21-23 > The Republican National Convention in Chicago: “feigned enthusiasm punctuated with indifference” - Roosevelt is nominated for president by acclamation

Military.
==Jun.--- > Joseph Stilwell receives his commission in US Army

Sports.
==Jul.01-Nov.23 > The Third Olympics are held in St Louis: with few foreign athletes, America overwhelmingly leads with eighty gold medals (unofficial events began May.14)

Politics.
==Jul.04-05 > In Springfield, Illinois, the convention of the declining Populist Party nominates Tom Watson for President

Politics.
==Jul.06-10 > The inharmonious Democratic National Convention in St. Louis - on Jul.08 conservative Alton B. Parker of New York is nominated over radical newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst - Parker’s support of the gold standard causes an uproar

West.Far Left.
==summer > The start of yearly Socialist Party summer encampments at Grand Saline in East Texas - the custom soon spreads to dozens of other sites - ~Socialism seems to be taking root in the rural Southwest

Politics.
==Aug.10 > Democratic candidate Parker launches his feeble presidential campaign with a bland acceptance speech

Northeast.Drugs and Alcohol.
==Sep.28 > In New York City, a woman is arrested for smoking a cigarette on 5th Avenue

Latin American Relations.
==Sep.--- > Concerning a proposed US intervention in Venezuela, Roosevelt privately writes: “It will show these Dagos that they will have to behave decently.”

Politics.Business.
Charges of Republican corruption:
==Oct.01 > The New York World charges that Republican National Chairman Cortelyou is extorting money from large industrial trusts
==Oct.24 > Democratic candidate Parker belatedly begins attacking Roosevelt for taking corporate money
==Nov.04 > Roosevelt categorically (and falsely) denies taking corporate payoffs - Parker’s charges of Republican corruption fizzle

Business.
==Oct.15 > A. P. Giannini’s Bank of Italy opens its doors in San Francisco - it will eventually become the Bank of America

Northeast.Urban.Transportation.
==Oct.27 > The first section of the New York City subway system is opened to the public - on the first day, 110,000 people use it and the first subway crimes are reported

Military.
==Nov.01 > The US Army War College enrolls its first class

Politics.
==Nov.08 > Theodore Roosevelt wins the biggest presidential election victory since 1872; he publicly pledges not to seek another term as president - strong Republican majorities in both houses of Congress

Latin American Relations.
==Nov.12 > The Americans begin major work on the Panama Canal, as the first steam shovel begins to excavate

Government.Finance.
==Nov.18 > ~Roosevelt begins to retreat from talk of tariff reform

Business.Press.
==Nov.--- > Ida Tarbell’s famous exposé The History of the Standard Oil Company is published in book form, after running as a series in McClure’s magazine since 1902

Latin American Relations.Government.Business.
==Dec.06 > In his annual message to the new 59th Congress, Roosevelt recommends labor and campaign reform, and increasing the government’s regulatory powers over rail rates - he also clearly states the ‘Roosevelt Corollary’ to the Monroe Doctrine: the US openly claims the right to intervene in Latin America - rapid expansion of US regional influence

Business.
==Dec.10 > Charles Schwab incorporates Bethlehem Steel in New Jersey

East Asian Relations.
==Dec.--- > Theodore Roosevelt comments on Japan: “I wish I were certain that the Japanese down at bottom did not lump... all of us, simply as white devils inferior to themselves... to be treated politely only so long as would enable the Japanese to take advantage of our various national jealousies, and beat us in turn.”- “So long as Japan takes an interest in Korea, in Manchuria, in China, it is Russia which is her natural enemy.” - ~America tacitly encourages Japanese expansion in Asia

Midwest.Politics.
==1904 > Progressive governors are elected in Minnesota, Kansas, and Missouri

Northeast.Transportation.
==1904 > New York becomes the first state to enact automobile speed limits (20 mph country/10 mph city)

Military.
==1904 > William ‘Bull’ Halsey graduates from Annapolis

Economy.
==1904 > Economic recession in America

Business.
==1904 > America becomes the world’s largest automobile manufacturer, surpassing France

Labor.
==1904 > ~A great surge in union activity is underway - membership has quadrupled in five years to over two million - 4,000 strikes occur in 1904, nearly half resulting in tangible gains

Poverty.
==1904 > Robert Hunter’s Poverty is published, the most careful study to date - it estimates that an eighth of the American population is poor

Government.Urban.
==1904 > Muckraker Lincoln Steffens publishes The Shame of the Cities in McClure’s, exposing the extent of municipal corruption in America

Popular Culture.
==1904 > George M. Cohan’s first major play debuts, featuring Yankee Doodle Dandy and Give My Regards to Broadway


1905

Latin American Relations.
==Jan.03 > Elihu Root, who will soon become Secretary of State writes “The inevitable effect of our building the Canal must be to require us to police the surrounding premises.”
==Jan.21 > The first application of the ‘Roosevelt Corollary’: the Dominican Republic agrees to partially surrender control of its finances to the United States

Government.Business.
==Jan.30 > Speaking at the Union League Club in Philadelphia, Roosevelt advocates strong Federal regulation of corporations and fixing of rail rates - ~wealthy conservatives begin to grow alarmed at his rhetoric

Government.Law.Business.
==Jan.30 > The Supreme Court upholds the government’s actions against the beef trust in Swift v United States… but the beef trust survives

Government.Labor.
==Jan.31 > Carroll Wright is appointed as the first US Commissioner of Labor

Sports.
==Jan.31 > A. G. MacDonald becomes first man to exceed 100 miles per hour in an automobile, at Daytona Beach.

Government.Finance.
==Jan.--- > Under pressure from the powerful Speaker of the House Joe Cannon, Roosevelt abandons any attempts at tariff revision

Government.Business.
==Jan.--- > Roosevelt orders the first government probe of US Steel Corporation

Government.Enviromental.
==Feb.01 > The Transfer Act is signed, centralizing control of forest reserves in the Agriculture Department’s Bureau of Forestry under the dynamic conservationist Gifford Pinchot - forest reserves rapidly expand, and are soon designated as National Forests - the start of Roosevelt’s energetic conservation programs

Government.Business.
==Feb.09 > The Esch-Townsend Bill to regulate rail rates is overwhelmingly passed by the House - ~it fails to get to the Senate floor

Politics.Diplomacy.
==Feb.11 > The Senate blocks arbitration agreements that America has signed with ten nations - ill will between Roosevelt and Congress

Business.Press.
==Feb.12 > Pulitzer’s New York World launches exposés of Equitable Life - insurance scandals begin to surface

Far Left.
==Feb.--- > Roosevelt writes that the rise of socialism is “far more ominous than any populist or similar movement in the past.”

Government.Enviromental.
==Mar.03 > The US Forest Service is established

Politics.
==Mar.04 > Roosevelt is inaugurated for his second term; he declares “We have become a great nation...” - Geronimo rides in the inaugural parade

Northeast.Politics.
==Mar.17 > The young Franklin Delano Roosevelt marries his cousin Eleanor Roosevelt in New York City - Theodore Roosevelt gives away the bride, who is his niece

Diplomacy.
Roosevelt initiates a peace process to end the Russo-Japanese War:
==Mar.20 > Theodore Roosevelt informs the Japanese that he’s willing to act as a mediator to help resolve the Russo-Japanese War
==Apr.21 > Roosevelt calls for direct Japanese-Russian peace talks
==Jun.07-12 > Russia and Japan accept Roosevelt’s offer to host peace talks  (see Aug.09)

South.Military.
==Mar.25 > Confederate battle flags that were captured during the Civil War are returned to the South

Pacific Coast.Immigration.
Anti-Asian paranoia on the West Coast:
==Mar.--- > A resolution by the California legislature envisions hordes of discharged Japanese soldiers flooding in and fears the “complete Orientalization of the Pacific Coast” unless Congress restricts Japanese immigration
==May.07 > The Asiatic Exclusion League is established to halt Japanese immigration to the west coast

Labor.Law.
==Apr.17 > The US Supreme Court rules that state labor laws limiting working hours are unconstitutional in Lochner v. New York - the court begins to frequently veto regulatory laws, to 1937 - Justice Holmes issues a brilliant dissent

Northeast.Government.Business.
==spring > ~Charles Evans Hughes exposes price gouging by the New York City gas companies

Government.Business.
==May.10 > Speaking in Chicago, Roosevelt says “Personally I believe that the Federal Government must take an increasing control over corporations” and demands that the ICC be authorized to set rail rates

Government.
==Jun.02 > The Keep Commission is formed by Roosevelt to study the functioning of the Federal government

Transportation.
==Jun.11-18 > The Pennsylvania and the New York Central railroads both begin an eighteen-hour New York City-Chicago express train service - both trains wreck within a week, killing nineteen passengers

Film.Business.
==Jun.19 > The first nickelodeon opens in Pittsburgh, with The Great Train Robbery as the opening feature: the first regular American theater devoted to movies - ~nickelodeons rapidly spread, greatly increasing the popularity of films

Labor.Far Left.
==Jun.27-Jul.08 > The radical IWW syndicalist labor union is established at a Chicago convention, with Eugene Debs, Big Bill Haywood, and Mother Jones present

Diplomacy.
==Jul.01 > Secretary of State John Hay dies in office - on Jul.19, Elihu Root succeeds him


W. E. B. Dubois

Ethnic.
==Jul.11-13 > A conference of black intellectuals at Niagara Falls passes resolutions demanding full racial equality - the start of W. E. B. Dubois’ Niagara Movement

East Asian Relations.
==Jul.29 > The secret Taft-Katsura memorandum: the US recognizes Japanese predominance in Korea in return for a Japanese pledge not to interfere in the Philippines

Pacific Coast.Urban.
==summer > Farmers in the Owens Valley are bilked of their water rights by Los Angeles, in preparation for the building of an aqueduct to the city   (see Nov.05.1913)

Diplomacy.
==Aug.09-Sep.05 > Roosevelt hosts Japanese-Russian peace talks at Portsmouth, New Hampshire
==Sep.05 > The Treaty of Portsmouth ends the Russo-Japanese War


Charles Evans Hughes

Northeast.Government.Business.
==Sep.06-Dec.30 > Charles Evans Hughes heads New York hearings on massive insurance corruption - ~rising public sentiment against corporate abuses: THE RISE OF PROGRESSIVISM (although the term is not yet in use)

Labor.Far Left.
==mid.Sep > An intensifying struggle is underway between the moderate AFL and the ultra-radical IWW unions - the IWW is splitting the Socialists and the labor movement

Drugs and Alcohol.Press.
==early.Oct > Collier’s launches an exposé by muckraker Samuel Hopkins Adams on drug and alcohol additives in commercial home remedies

International.
==Oct.17 > Andrew Carnegie becomes prominent in promoting world peace with a speech at St. Andrews University advocating a great power ‘Peace League’, an early vision of a League of Nations

Military.
==Nov.01-Jul.17.1906 > Lt. Douglas MacArthur accompanies his father on an extensive military tour of eastern and southern Asia, where he meets Admiral Togo, Lord Kitchener, the King of Siam and other notables

Northeast.Politics.
==Nov.06 > William Randolph Hearst narrowly looses to Tammany candidate McClellan in a hard-fought New York City mayoral race

Pacific Coast.Politics.
==Nov.07 > Abe Ruef’s pro-union, but corrupt, Union Labor Party gains virtually complete municipal control in San Francisco city elections   (see May.15.1907)

Government.Business.
==Dec.05 > Roosevelt’s annual message to Congress calls for strong Federal oversight of big business, provoking a furious reaction from conservatives

Popular Culture.
==Dec.05 > O. Henry publishes The Gift of the Magi

Government.Business.
==Dec.11 > The Attorney General orders a crackdown on railroads for rate violations, resulting in a flurry of Federal indictments

West.Labor.Law.
The Moyer-Haywood case begins:
==Dec.30 > Former Idaho Governor Frank Steunenberg is killed by an explosion as he opens his front gate, in the first known American case of murder by dynamite
1906
==Jan.25-Feb.01 > Harry Orchard, Stuenenberg’s murderer, is manipulated into a confession implicating Western Federation of Miners/IWW labor leaders
==Feb.17-19  > WFM leaders Charles Moyer, Big Bill Haywood and George Pettibone are kidnapped by Denver police and illegally spirited to Idaho to stand trial for the murder of Governor Steunenberg
==Feb.26  > The WFM retains Clarence Darrow as defense lawyer in the case
==Mar.10 > Socialist leader Eugene Debs responds to the Moyer-Haywood indictment with an article entitled AROUSE, YE SLAVES!, warning that if the authorities convict “...a million revolutionists at least will meet them with guns.”
==Dec.03 > The US Supreme Court upholds Idaho’s right to try the WFM labor leaders even if their kidnapping was illegal   (see Apr.02.1907)

Government.
==1905 > A French political map describes 25 out of the 45 US states as ‘utterly corrupt’ - Americans are annoyed, but do not dispute the map’s accuracy

Pacific Coast.Politics.
==1905-1910 > Assisted by John Reed’s father, an Oregon land fraud probe brings down many state officials

Military.
==1905 > The US Army Field Service Regulations begin presenting plans for organizing existing smaller units into divisions in the event of war

Military.
==1905 > Chester Nimitz receives his commission in the US Navy

Far Left.
==1905 > The Intercollegiate Socialist Society is established by Upton Sinclair, Clarence Darrow and Jack London - it soon has chapters in all major American universities

Immigration.
==1905-1914 > The peak years of immigration to America, mostly from southern and eastern Europe

Business.Press.
==1905 > Baker’s exposé Railroads on Trial appears in McClure’s

West.Business.
==1905 > The enormous Glenn Pool oilfield is discovered near Tulsa - Oklahoma becomes a major oil producer, exceeding Texas from 1906 until 1928

Midwest.Crime.
==1905 > The world’s first reported stolen car, in St. Louis

Drugs and Alcohol.Law.
==1905 > New York restricts the sale of cocaine, morphine and opium, describing them as “poisons” - ~the earliest strong anti-drug laws are being passed by the states

Drugs and Alcohol.
==1905 > The cocaine in Coca-Cola is replaced with caffeine


1906

West.Enviromental.Government.
==Jan.01 > The Federal government begins charging a fee for the use of national forest lands, provoking bitter opposition in the west

Politics.
==Jan.04 > Robert La Follette of Wisconsin takes his seat in the Senate (elected Jan.1905) - ~a liberal Republican faction begins to emerge in Congress

Economy.
==Jan.12 > The Dow Jones closes over 100 for the first time

Military.
==Jan.--- > The US Navy is undergoing a power struggle between ardent reformist officers and the conservative entrenched bureaus - the struggle continues to WWI


Upton Sinclair

Government.Business.Drugs and Alcohol.Law.
The battle over Federal regulation of food and drugs:
==early.1906 > The young socialist Upton Sinclair publishes the novel The Jungle at his own expense - Americans are horrified by his accounts of the conditions in meat-packing plants
==Feb.21 > The Senate overwhelmingly passes the Pure Food and Drug Act, but it soon stalls in the House
==May.25 > A strong meat inspection bill passes the Senate; it soon stalls in the House
==Jun.04 > To pressure the House, Roosevelt makes public the Neill-Reynolds Report on the revolting conditions in meat packing plants - meat sales plummet
==Jun.23 > The House passes the Pure Food and Drug Act    (see Jun.30)

Northeast.Government.Business.
==Feb.01 > Henry L. Stimson enters public life when he is sworn in as US District Attorney for southern New York (to Mar 1909) - ~Felix Frankfurter soon hired as his assistant - ~federal law enforcement is targeting corporate crime

Police.
==Feb.01 > The first federal penitentiary building is completed, at Leavenworth, Kansas

Politics.
==Feb.03 > Harper’s publisher George Harvey first publicizes the possibility of Woodrow Wilson as president

Government.Business.
The struggle over Federal regulation of railroads:
==Feb.08 > The House overwhelmingly passes the Hepburn Bill to regulate rail rates
==Apr.19-21 > Progressive Senator LaFollette makes a three day set speech on the Hepburn Bill in opposition to Senate leadership
==May.18 > The Senate passes a weakened version of Roosevelt’s Hepburn Bill to regulate rail rates after a hard fight   (see Jun.29)

Politics.
==Feb.17 > Theodore Roosevelt’s daughter Alice marries Congressman Nicholas Longworth in a lavish ceremony in the White House - ~the marriage does not prove to be a happy one

Transportation.
==Mar.01 > Princeton President Woodrow Wilson blames automobiles for the spread of  socialism


Emma Goldman

Far Left.Press.
==Mar.01 > Emma Goldman’s anarchist newspaper Mother Earth begins publication

Government.Business.
==Mar.04 > Roosevelt publishes a report exposing Standard Oil’s massive use of illegally reduced rail rates

Women.
==Mar.13 > Pioneering feminist Susan B. Anthony dies in Rochester

European Relations.
==Mar.19 > At the international Algeciras Conference, America successfully pressures Germany into accepting the pro-French American ‘compromise’ plan on Morocco, ending the First Moroccan Crisis

Press.
==Apr.14 > Roosevelt popularizes the term “muckrakers” in a surprising attack on progressive journalists (his first recorded use of the word is on Mar.17)

Pacific Coast.Religion.
==Apr.14 > Black preacher William J. Seymour begins preaching at Azusa Street in Los Angeles - the start of the rise of modern Pentecostalism

Pacific Coast.
==Apr.18 > San Francisco is devastated by a severe earthquake [512.AM], setting off an immense fire - by the time the fire is extinguished on Apr.21, two thirds of the city (25,000 buildings) has been destroyed, with 225,000 residents left homeless and more than 500 killed

Military.
==Apr.24 > The remains of John Paul Jones are reburied at Annapolis

Midwest.Urban.
==Apr.27 > US Steel officially begins construction of Gary, Indiana, which will become the largest company town in America

Northeast.Government.Business.
==Apr.28 > New York state passes thorough life insurance reform

Labor.Politics.
==spring > House Republicans ignore AFL proposals for laws protecting unions’ right to strike - ~labor unions begin to actively align with the Democrats

Government.Business.
==May.05 > A government report charges Standard Oil with “monopolistic control”

Alaska.Government.
==May.07 > The territory of Alaska is permitted to elect a delegate to Congress

Aviation.
==May.22 > The basic Wright brothers’ patent for a flying machine is granted

Transportation.
==May.--- > Rail magnate E. H. Harriman travels coast to coast by train in 71 hours

Enviromental.Government.
==Jun.08 > Congress passes the National Monuments Act - ~Devil’s Tower, Wyoming, is soon declared the first National Monument

Labor.Law.
==Jun.11 > The Employer’s Liability Act makes employers responsible for their workers’ injuries   (see Jan.06.1908)

Pacific Coast.Enviromental.
==Jun.11 > Yosemite Valley National Park is established

Northeast.Crime.
==Jun.25 > In one of the most famous crimes of the age, architect Stanford White is murdered at Madison Square Garden (which he had designed) in New York City by playboy Harry K. Thaw - ~Thaw's lawyers later convince the jury that Thaw was suffering from a condition they call dementia Americana

Government.Business.
==Jun.29 > Congress completes the Hepburn Act for regulating rail rates - Roosevelt’s main domestic reform - ~increasing government regulation of industry and commerce

Enviromental.Government.
==Jun.29 > Roosevelt takes steps to preserve public lands rich in coal

West.Enviromental.
==Jun.29 > The enormous Grand Canyon Game Preserve is created

Government.Business.
==Jun.30 > Roosevelt signs the Meat Inspection Act

Drugs and Alcohol.Law.
==Jun.30 > Roosevelt signs the Pure Food and Drug Act - the end of free and easy use of cocaine and opiates and demise of the patent medicine industry - drug addiction begins a dramatic drop: drug use is increasingly identified with blacks, the poor, and criminals

International.
==Jul.25 > Henry Cabot Lodge writes Roosevelt: “We are the strongest moral force - also physical - now extant, and the peace of the world rests largely with us.”

Latin American Relations.
==Jul.27 > Speaking at the Third Pan American Conference in Rio, Secretary of State Root pledges less US intervention in Latin America

South.Politics.
==Jul.--- > Racist-populist Hoke Smith wins the Democratic nomination for Governor of Georgia - demagogue Tom Watson becomes a major force in Georgian politics to 1920

Ethnic.Politics.
The Brownsville Affray and its aftermath:
==Aug.13-14 > ‘Brownsville Affray’ [~midnight]: black troops are accused of rioting in South Texas, although there is no real evidence that they are in fact guilty
==Nov.05 > In the aftermath of the alleged Brownsville riot, Roosevelt orders that three companies of black soldiers be given dishonorable discharges, including six Medal of Honor recipients, and ignores pleas to reconsider - blacks are outraged
==Dec.20 > Senator Foraker comprehensively refutes Roosevelt’s defense of his discharge of the Brownsville garrison - ~growing rift between Roosevelt and Congress
1907
==Jan.14 > Roosevelt again refuses to reconsider the Brownsville case
==Jan.26 > At a Gridiron Club dinner, Senator Foraker argues down Roosevelt in a dramatic confrontation over the Brownsville affair
==Jan.--- > The Senate launches an investigation into the Brownsville affair, and eventually upholds Roosevelt
==mid.Mar. > In an attempt to destroy Senator Foraker’s power base in Ohio, Roosevelt supports Taft’s presidential bid
1908
==Apr.14 > A speech by Senator Foraker convincingly proves the innocence of the black troops accused in the Brownsville affair, to no avail   (see Sep.17.1908)

Popular Culture.
==Aug.22 > Roosevelt attempts to reform the English language by ordering the Public Printer to use ‘simplified spelling’, to the amusement of the press

European Relations.
==late.Aug > Roosevelt transmits arms reductions proposals to the European powers, with little effect

Government.Business.
==end.Aug > Speaking at Madison Square Garden, William Jennings Bryan calls for public ownership of railroads - the response to his proposal is generally hostile

Politics.
==Aug.--- > William Howard Taft decides to refuse an appointment to the Supreme Court, and aims toward the presidency

Pacific Coast.Politics.
==late summer > Widespread outrage in California at the openly corrupt state Republican Convention, starting a regional revolt against the dominance of the Southern Pacific Railroad

Latin American Relations.
The US intervenes in Cuba:
==Sep.08 > Cuban President Estrada Palma begins seeking US aid against a Liberal revolt
==Sep.10 > Roosevelt reluctantly orders warships to Cuba
==Sep.14 > Roosevelt warily agrees to send Taft to mediate a Cuban settlement when Estrada Palma threatens to resign
==Sep.23 > Estrada Palma angrily rejects Taft’s proposed compromise
==Sep.28 > The entire Cuban government resigns [900.PM]
==Sep.28-29 > US Marines occupy Havana [from midnight]: the second US intervention in Cuba, to Feb.1909

South.Ethnic.
==Sep.22-24 > Provoked by demagogic gubernatorial candidate Hoke Smith, a race riot erupts in Atlanta, leaving 21 dead, including 18 blacks; the city is placed under martial law - ~in response to the tragedy, the interracial Atlanta Civic League is established to promote racial harmony in the city

Labor.Far Left.
==Oct.02-Jan.1907 > The Western Federation of Miners breaks with the ultra-radical IWW - ~the IWW seems to be crumbling, to 1908

Pacific Coast.Ethnic.East Asian Relations.
San Francisco’s segregation policy sets off a crisis with Japan:
==Oct.11 > San Francisco announces that it will segregate Asian schoolchildren - US-Japanese crisis to Mar.1907 - Roosevelt is enraged at the “infernal fools in California”
==Oct.25  Japan strongly protests the segregation of Japanese schoolchildren
==Oct.26 > Roosevelt sends Secretary Metcalf to California to attempt to defuse the segregation crisis - San Francisco refuses to back down
==Dec.04 > In his annual message to Congress, Roosevelt strongly attacks San Francisco’s segregation policy as a “wicked absurdity”, evoking an angry response from California
1907
==Jan.30 > Roosevelt meets with Californian congressmen to defuse the crisis with Japan over San Francisco’s segregation of Japanese schoolchildren - brief war scare: ~the US Army-Navy Joint Board belatedly begins planning for a possible war against Japan     (see Mar.13.1907)

Northeast.Government.Business.
==Oct.--- > The American Sugar Refining Company is found guilty of forcing rebates on New York Railroads, after a skillful persecution by Federal Attorney Stimson

Military.
==fall > The battleships South Carolina and Michigan are laid down, their advanced design already rendered obsolete by the newly launched HMS Dreadnought

Politics.
==Nov.06 > Midterm elections: Republicans gain in the Senate and loose in the House, but retain strong majorities in both houses - with help from Roosevelt, Charles Evans Hughes is elected Governor of New York, defeating William Randolph Hearst in a vicious campaign: this is Hearst’s last serious personal attempt at political office - poor whites elect demagogue Hoke Smith governor in Georgia

Latin American Relations.
==Nov.09-26 > Theodore Roosevelt travels to Panama to inspect the Canal, becoming the first American president to take a foreign trip while in office

Government.Business.
==Nov.15 > The Justice Department files motions to dissolve the Standard Oil Corporation

Military.
==Nov.15 > Future Air Force general Curtis LeMay is born in Columbus, Ohio

Technology.
==late fall > Lee De Forest develops the audion (triode), revolutionizing radio

Military.
==Dec.04-Aug.1907 > The young Lieutenant Douglas MacArthur serves as Theodore Roosevelt’s military aide

Politics.
==early.Dec. >  Second session of the 59th Congress - increased resistance by conservatives against reform legislation - ~Speaker Cannon is using dictatorial methods in the House

Diplomacy.
==Dec.10 > Theodore Roosevelt is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in mediating the Russo-Japanese War

European Relations.
==Dec.12 > The US Senate approves the Treaty of Algeciras after appending a statement opposing American involvement in European affairs

Technology.
==Dec.24 > The first radio transmission of voice and music is made by Fessenden in Massachusetts

Economy.
==Dec.--- > The stock market shows early signs of unsteadiness  (see Mar.04)

Northeast.Politics.Education.
==Dec to 1910 > University President Woodrow Wilson is frustrated in his struggles to reform Princeton, but gains wide public recognition

Military.
==Dec.--- > The progressive US Navy officer William Sims publishes an article justifying the construction of dreadnoughts, repudiating the influential Admiral Mahan and convincing Roosevelt - Sims is soon afterwards appointed naval aide to Roosevelt

Military.
==1906 > The American fleet becomes the world’s third largest, after Britain and France and temporarily ahead of Germany - abandoning a coastal defense navy, Congress lifts tonnage limitations and commits to building a fleet of dreadnoughts - European and South American stations are abolished as the Navy concentrates its strength, including all of its battleships, in the North Atlantic

Military.
==1906 > The US Army buys its first six automobiles

West.Far Left.
==1906 > 200 local Socialist Party organizations are active in Texas and Oklahoma

Technology.
==1906 > A power plant in the Los Angeles area begins supplying electricity in the daytime so housewives can use electrical appliances

Enviromental.Government.
==1906 > The Antiquities Act permits the President to reserve federal lands for the protection of historic or scientific sites

Popular Culture.
==1906 > Hot dogs are given their name, after being sold at the Polo Grounds ball park in New York City since about 1900

Popular Culture.
==1906 > Gabel produces the prototype of the modern jukebox

Portrait of Charles Evans Hughes from
US State Department: Hall of the Secretaries of State

Photo of Emma Goldman from
The Emma Goldman Papers

 United States, 1904-1914: Introduction   ///   (2)  Economic Turmoil, 1907-1908

(3)  The Fall of the Old Guard, 1909-1910   ///   (4)  The High Tide of the Progressive Era, 1911-1912

(5)  The Beginning of Wilson's Presidency, 1913-1914   ///  Biographies & Glossary
 

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