Cinema’s first crime thriller:
the evil mastermind Fantomas looms over Paris, ~1913

.
This chronology includes film, theater, opera, and dance.

This was an amazing time for the more established performing arts, with George Bernard Shaw, Richard Strauss, Isadora Duncan, and the Ballets Russes all in their prime.  Motion pictures are another story - the first real public movie presentation was only in 1895, and the films of this decade seem primitive and weak to modern audiences.  Still, this is one of the most interesting times in the history of cinema… filmmakers were discovering the basic tricks of the trade and, in America, the business end of the industry was beginning to pull itself together.  Everything that was achieved later started here.


 
 
1904

Theater.Russia.
==Jan.17 > Chekhov’s last play - The Cherry Orchard - opens at the Moscow Art Theatre (the date may be in Russian Old Style)

Film.Britain.United States.
==Jan.18 > Cary Grant (Archibald Leach) is born to a poor family in Bristol

Opera.Italy.
==Feb.17 > Puccini's Madame Butterfly premieres in Milan, failing in its original production

Film.United States.
==Mar.23 > Joan Crawford (Lucille Fay LeSueur) is born in poverty in San Antonio
==Jun.26 > Peter Lorre (Ladislav Loewenstein) is born in Rozsahegy, Hungary

Theater.Britain.
==Dec.27 > Barrie’s Peter Pan opens in London

Theater.Ireland.
==Dec.27 > The Abbey Theater opens in Dublin - its opening performance is Yeats’ Irish nationalist play Cathleen-ni-Houlihan

Film.United States.
==1904 > The French Pathé company successfully breaks into the American film market
==1904 > Young William Fox buys his first penny arcade/theater in Brooklyn
==1904 > Baptist Minister Thomas Dixon, Jr, publishes The Clansman, glorifying the Klu Klux Klan - it will later be filmed as Birth of a Nation

Film.France.
==1904 > Georges Méliès releases the first two-reel film, Impossible Voyage

Theater.Britain.
==1904 > George Bernard Shaw is emerging as a major playwright - the Royal Court Theatre in London performs ten of his plays in repertory to 1907


1905

Film.United States.
==May.16 > Henry Fonda is born in Grand Island, Nebraska
==Jun.19 > The first nickelodeon opens, in Pittsburgh, with The Great Train Robbery as the opening feature - the first regular American theater devoted to movies - ~popular with working-class audiences, nickelodeons spread rapidly through the United States - ~film quickly develops into a major industry
==summer > Groucho Marx gets his first vaudeville job, in New York City
==Aug.02 > Myrna Loy is born to a prominent Montana cattleman
==Sep.13 > Claudette Colbert is born in Paris

Film.Scandinavia.
==Sep.18 > Greta Garbo is born in Stockholm to an impoverished laborer

Theater.United States.
==Oct.31 > Shaw’s Mrs. Warren’s Profession opens in New York City and is immediately closed by arch-prude Anthony Comstock

Theater.Britain.
==Nov.28 > Shaw's quasi-revolutionary Major Barbara opens in London

Opera.Germany.
==Dec.09 > Richard Strauss’ Salomé opens in Dresden, after being rejected in Berlin, Vienna, and London for sacrilege - it proves to be highly successful despite the Kaiser’s disapproval

Film.Theater.United States.
==Dec.16 > The American entertainment trade journal Variety begins publication

Film.United States.
==1905 > Marcus Loew and Adolph Zukor begin buying up penny arcade/theaters in Manhattan and Cincinnati
==1905 > D. W. Griffith sees his first film, and comments “Any man enjoying such a thing should be shot.”

Film.Britain.
==1905 > The skillfully filmed British melodrama Rescued by Rover is produced: very early examples of suspenseful cutting and traveling shots

Film.France.
==1905 > The first permanent movie theaters in Europe appear, in France
==1905 > Léon Gaumont moves into film production, and soon becomes second only to Pathé in French filmmaking
==1905 > The Pathé company colors black and white films by machine
==1905 > French music hall star André Deed begins filming comedies, and becomes the first screen personality recognized by the public

Film.Italy.
==1905 > The first Italian film studio, Film Ambrosio, is set up in the owner’s backyard - ~the Italian film industry begins to develop
==1905 > The first Italian spectacle is released: Alberini’s The Sack of Rome

Film.Afghanistan.
==1905 > Cinema is first introduced into Afghanistan

Dance.Russia.
==1905 > The avant-garde American dancer Isadora Duncan tours Russia, influencing Diaghilev


1906

Film.United States.
==Jan.--- > Carl Laemmle opens his first nickelodeon, in Chicago; within a few months, he owns a chain and has moved into distribution

Film.Italy.
==May.08 > Roberto Rossellini is born in Rome, the son of an architect

Theater.Scandinavia.
==May.23 > When a nurse chirps “Our patient is feeling much better today,” the ailing radical dramatist Henrik Ibsen responds “On the contrary!” and dies - in Oslo at age 78

Theater.United States.
==Jun.03 > Josephine Baker (Freda Josephine Carson) is born in St. Louis to a washerwoman

Film.United States.
==Jun.22 > Billy Wilder is born in Vienna
==Aug.05 > John Huston is born in Missouri to actor Walter Huston
==Nov.14 > Louise Brooks is born in Cherryvale, Kansas, the daughter of a lawyer

Film.France.
==Dec.01 >  The Omnia Pathé opens in Paris as the world’s first luxury cinema - ~in Europe, movies are beginning to draw middle-class audiences

Film.United States.
==Dec.05 > Otto Preminger is born in Vienna, to a former Imperial attorney-general

Film.Australia.
==Dec.24 > The world’s first feature-length film, The Story of the Kelly Gang, premieres in Melbourne - Australian cinema briefly flourishes

Film.United States.
==1906 > Biograph film studio opens in New York City
==1906 > J. Stuart Blackton produces the first crude animated films: a ‘gent’ blowing cigar smoke at a Gibson girl and Humorous Phases of Funny Faces, the first cartoon to use the single frame method
==1906 (or 1907) > The word ‘movie’ is in use in the Bowery in New York

Film.Britain.
==1906 > Will G. Barker produces the first regular daily newsreels for London’s Empire Theatre

Film.France.
==1906 > In France, Pathé studios is turning out a film a day - the ‘industrialization’ of cinema is underway

Film.Italy.
==1906 > Alberini establishes the Cines film studio in Italy
==1906 > The world’s first film scores are composed in Italy by Bacchioni

Film.Scandinavia.
==1906 > Nordisk studio is established in Denmark by Ole Olsen - ~Nordisk briefly becomes one of the world’s leading film exporters


1907

Film.United States.
==Jan.19 > Variety publishes its first film review

Opera.United States.
==Jan.22 > Richard Strauss’ Salome opens at the New York Metropolitan Opera - ~it is soon withdrawn after storms of protests

Theater.Ireland.
==Jan.26 > Synge’s Playboy of the Western World premieres at the Abbey Theatre in Dublin, setting off rioting

Film.United States.
==Apr.13 > The Chicago Daily Tribune denounces nickelodeons as firetraps and tawdry corrupters of children
==May.12 > Katharine Hepburn is born to a distinguished Connecticut family

Film.Britain.
==May.22 > Laurence Olivier is born in Surrey, to a strict Anglican clergyman

Film.United States.
==May.26 > John Wayne (Marion Morrison) is born in Iowa

Theater.China.
==Jun.01-02 > The Spring Willow Society performs the first Chinese spoken play, in Tokyo; an adaptation of Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Theater.United States.
==Jul.08(or Jul.18) > The first of the Ziegfeld Follies opens on Broadway: the slender chorus girls begin a trend toward a thinner ideal of beauty - the Follies continue under Ziegfeld’s direction until 1931, and under others until 1956

Film.United States.
==Nov.04 > Chicago becomes the first city to censor movies - ~the start of fear of movies’ effects on public morals
==Nov.28 > Young junk dealer Louis B. Mayer enters the movie business, buying a failed theater in Haverhill, Massachusetts, which he advertises as ‘the home of refined amusement’
==1907 > The first film companies arrive in Los Angeles
==1907 > The first showing of a color motion picture with sound, in Cleveland
==1907 > Bell and Howell develop a film projection system.
==1907-1914 > The Broncho Billy series, with 400 episodes, popularizes westerns - Gilbert Anderson becomes the first cowboy hero and perhaps the first recognizable character in American films
==1907 > Edwin Porter begins D. W. Griffith’s film career by casting him as an actor

Film.France.
==1907 > Edmond Benoît-Lévy suggests that movies are not merchandise but ‘artistic property’ - ~cinema begins to develop artistic pretensions

Film.Scandinavia.
==1907 > The Svenska Bio film company is established


1908

Film.Britain.
==Jan.11 > Sixteen children are crushed at a stampede in a cinema at Barnsley

Film.United States.
==Jan.13 > A cinema fire at Boyertown, Pennsylvania, kills 167

Film.Britain.
==Mar.25 > Future director David Lean is born at Croydon in Surrey

Film.United States.
==Apr.05 > Bette Davis is born in Lowell, Massachusetts
==May.20 > Jimmy Stewart is born to a Pennsylvania hardware store owner
==Jul.14 > The first movie directed by D. W. Griffith (The Adventures of Dollie) is released - Griffith will direct 450 one-reel films for Biograph in the next five years, developing many innovative techniques - ~he begins training his casts in convincing film acting
==Sep.09 > The nine largest American and French film companies establish the Motion Picture Patents Company trust in an attempt to monopolize production in the infant American film industry - ~the trust uses intimidation and violence against independents

Film.France.
==Oct.09 > Jacques Tati is born in Le Pecq, France, the grandson of a Russian ambassador

Film.United States.
==Dec.24 > New York City enacts a film censorship law: only theatres that pledge not to show immoral films will be licensed

Film.International.
==1908 > The French Pathé company is by far the world’s largest filmmaker, controlling two-thirds of the American market alone and moving into the Italy by forming Film d’Arte Italiana - Pathé begins to regularly offer newsreels

Film.United States.
==1908 > Eight to ten thousand nickelodeons are operating in the US, drawing 200,000 customers a day - the early American film industry is booming
==1908 > Lubin’s A Yiddisher Boy utilizes the first film flashback

Film.Britain.
==1908 > The innovative British filmmaker George Albert Smith creates A Visit to the Seaside, the first commercially produced movie in natural colors, using Kinemacolor

Film.France.
==1908 > The French Société Film d’Art is established to culturally uplift cinema by filming prestigious plays - it releases The Murder of the Duc de Guise as world’s first art film, which proves to be devoid of any cinematic skill
==1908 > Famous stage actress Sarah Bernhardt appears in her first film, Tosca - upon seeing it, she demands that the negatives be destroyed
==1908 > The first detective films, the Nick Carter series, are released in France
==1908 > Frenchman Max Linder, in films since 1905, develops his dapper film character for early slapstick comedies - arguably the world’s first great film performer

Film.Italy.
==1908 > The Last Days of Pompei begins a boom in Italian costume epics

Film.Russia.
==1908 > The first Russian film studio is established

Theater.United States.
==1908 > Israel Zangwill’s play The Melting Pot opens in New York City, celebrating a multi-ethnic society

Dance.International.
==1908 > Modernist dancer Isadora Duncan begins to enjoy international recognition after triumphs in London and New York City


Isadora Duncan


1909

Opera.Germany.
==Jan.25 > Richard Strauss’ grand and foreboding Elektra premieres in Dresden

Film.United States.
==Jan.--- > A film distributors’ convention in New York is greeted with circulars from the aggressive new Patents Company trust, warning that any distributors who defy the monopoly will be driven out of business

Theater.Britain.
==Jan.--- > An Englishman's Home, a dramatization of a foreign invasion, begins an eighteen month run in London with recruiting stations installed in the theater lobby

Film.Latin America.
==Feb.09 > Carmen Miranda is born near Lisbon

Theater.Mexico.
==Feb.14 > A theater fire kills 300 in Acapulco

Film.United States.
==Feb.25 > The Patents Company trust begins submitting films to the semi-official National Board of Censorship (or ‘...of Review’) - the ineffective Review Board lasts until 1921

Film.Britain.United States.
==Mar.01 > David Niven is born in Kirriemuir, Scotland, to a military family

Film.United States.
==Mar.11 > The New York Times coins the term ‘stars’ for leading movie players
==Mar.16 > An American court rules that unauthorized films infringe on copyrights, in a case over the 1907 film version of  Ben-Hur - ~film companies begin buying screen rights to books and plays
==Apr.03 > Comedian Ben Turpin is mentioned in a trade journal, and becomes the first American film actor to have his name published
==Apr.12 > Film distributor Carl Laemmle turns in his license in public defiance of the Patents Company trust - he soon moves into production and establishes the Independent Motion Pictures Company (IMP), contending with 289 lawsuits in the next three years
==Apr.20 > Mary Pickford begins her film career at age fifteen, acting for D. W. Griffith

Film.Italy.
==Apr.24 > In a flight by Wilbur Wright at Centocelle in Italy, a passenger makes the first movie filmed from an airplane

Dance.France.Russia.
==May.19 > Diaghilev's Paris premiere of the Ballets Russes proves an immediate success - the beginning of modern ballet

Film.United States.
==Jun.20 > Errol Flynn is born in Tasmania, the son of a marine biologist
==Jul.--- > Tom Mix makes his first western, in Oklahoma
==Sep.07 > Elia Kazan (Elia Kazanjoglu) is born in Constantinople
==Dec.09 > Douglas Fairbanks, Jr, is born in New York City
==Dec.11 > A colored movie is demonstrated at Madison Square Garden
==1909 > Billy Bitzer becomes the first to film entirely indoors using artificial light
==1909 > Cartoonist Winsor McKay produces Gertie the Dinosaur, the first notable animated cartoon

Film.Germany.
==1909 > In Germany, Henny Porten emerges as one of the first recognized film actresses


1910

Film.United States.
==Jan.20 > D. W. Griffith arrives in Los Angeles

Film.International.
==Feb.05 > On the rivalry of the American and European film industries, a French producer predicts: “The Americans will conquer the European market...as soon as they have assured the final success of their rule in the United States.”

Film.Japan.
==Mar.23 > Akira Kurosawa is born in Tokyo, to a former army officer

Film.United States.
==Mar.--- > Carl Laemmle promotes actress Florence Lawrence: the origins of film publicity and the American star system
==Apr.--- > The Patents Company film trust attempts to expand its production monopoly into distribution by forming the General Film Company, absorbing independent distributors
==Apr.--- > The five-reel Life of Moses is shown at a single sitting in New Orleans - probably the first feature-length film shown in America

Dance.France.Russia.
==Jun.25 > The Firebird premieres in Paris, beginning Stravinsky’s association with the Ballets Russes

Film.United States.
==Jul.20 > The Christian Endeavor Society of Missouri launches a campaign to ban all movies depicting kissing except between family members
==Jul.23 > Georgia bans interracial boxing films
==Oct.03 > British vaudevillians Charlie Chaplin and Stan Laurel begin a tour of America
==Nov.12 > The first movie stunt: a man jumps into Hudson River from a burning balloon
==late.1910 > Mack Sennett begins directing shorts, but soon specializes in comedies
==1910 > John Randolph Bray patents the cel process, pioneering true animated cartoons with structured story lines
==1910 > Edison releases the first film version of Frankenstein; the monster appears misshapen and pathetic rather than horrifying
==1910 > Louella Parsons sells her first screen story
==1910 > Max Factor creates the first makeup formulated especially for film

Film.Italy.
==1910 > Most Italian provincial capitals have at least one cinema


Asta Nielsen

Film.Scandinavia.
==1910 > The Danish exploitation movie Afgrunden (The Abyss) makes Asta Nielsen one of the first widely popular film actresses in Europe

Theater.Film.United States.
==1910 > Eddie Cantor begins performing
==1910 > Sophie Tucker achieves fame in vaudeville as ‘The Last of the Red-Hot Mamas’

Theater.Britain.
==1910 > In Britain, John Galsworthy’s play Justice exposes the cruelty of solitary confinement and leads to its restriction
==1910 > The London Palladium opens
==1910 > British singer and actress Gracie Fields makes her first professional appearance

Theater.China.
==1910 > The Progress Troupe is established as the first (?) professional western-style theatrical company in China


1911

Opera.Germany.
==Jan.26 > The comic opera Der Rosenkavalier premieres in Dresden - the height of Richard Strauss’ career

Film.United States.
==May.27 > Vincent Price is born in St. Louis
==Jun.12-15 > D. W. Griffith directs one of the first 2-reelers, Enoch Arden
==Jul.19 > Pennsylvania becomes the first state to pass a film censorship law
==Aug.08 > Pathé’s Weekly becomes the first regularly released newsreel in America
==Sep.--- > The Patents Company/General Film trust fails to buy out William Fox, one of the few surviving independent distributors in America - a prolonged legal battle begins - Fox counters by moving into production by 1912
==Oct.27 > The first full-time studio in Hollywood begins operations, on a dusty road called Sunset Boulevard

Theater.United States.
==Nov.27 > The first recorded occurrence of an audience throwing vegetables at actors

Film.International.
==1911 > The Italian studio Film Ambrosio wins the world’s first international film competition, held at Turin
==1911 > The First International Congress of Cinématographe is held in Brussels - the lawyer Charles Havermans asserts that films are a form of art rather than a type of commerce

Film.United States.
==1911 > The earliest movie fanzines appear (Motion Picture Story and Photoplay)
==1911 > Wurlitzer produces the first cinema organs

Theater.Japan.
==1911 > Sumako Matsui becomes the first Japanese woman to play a female role on stage, in a translation of Hamlet


1912

Film.United States.
==Jan.--- > ~Thomas Ince pioneers the role of film producer by devising standard production budgeting formulas and introducing a detailed shooting script


Vaslav Nijinsky

Dance.France.Russia.
==May.29 > The Ballets Russes’ An Afternoon of a Faun premieres in Paris - the audience is shocked by Nijinsky’s overt sexuality

Film.United States.
==Jun.01 > Adolph Zukor forms the Famous Players Film Company, later renamed Paramount
==Jun.02 > Carl Laemmle merges IMP and other studios to form Universal, which will become the first major Hollywood studio

Theater.Britain.
==Jul.01 > The first Royal Command performance is held in London

Film.United States.
==Jul.12 > Adolph Zukor’s Famous Players’ first release is the four-reel French import Queen Elizabeth with Sarah Bernhardt in the title role, in New York City: the first popular feature-length film in America - ~the American middle-class is becoming attracted to films
==Jul.--- > D. W. Griffith hires the teenaged actresses Dorothy and Lillian Gish
==Aug.12 > Mack Sennett and a couple of bookies form the Keystone Film Company
==Aug.16 > The US government sues the Patents Company/General Film trust for restraint of trade - the attempt to monopolize the American film industry collapses
==Aug.23 > Gene Kelly is born in Pittsburgh

Film.Italy.
==Sep.29 > Michelangelo Antonioni is born into a middle-class family in Ferrara

Film.United States.
==Oct.31 > D. W. Griffith’s The Musketeers of Pig Alley is released - arguably the first gangster movie

Theater.Balkans.France.
==Nov.26 > Playwright Eugene Ionesco is born in Slatina, Romania

Film.United States.
==Dec.23 > The first Keystone Kop film is released
==1912 > Marcus Loew controls more than half of all American movie theaters
==1912 > American copyright protection is extended to films
==1912 > Kalmus forms the Technicolor Company to market early versions of the color process
==1912 > The Edison Company creates the first movie serial, the melodrama What Happened to Mary
==1912 > D. W. Griffith’s For His Son is released as one of the first anti-drug movies
==1912 > Lon Chaney, Sr, begins his film career - as an extra

Film.Britain.
==1912 > There are four hundred cinemas in London, up from ninety in 1909
==1912 > In Britain, the non-government Board of Film Censors establishes a letter-based rating system

Film.France.
==1912 > Léon Gaumont introduces a series of ‘talking movies’ in Paris and patents Chronochrome, an early color-film process

Film.Italy.
==1912 > The overblown but successful spectacle Quo Vadis is released, one of the first films with over two hours running time - Italian epics briefly dominate the international film market

Film.Germany.
==1912 > The appearance of ‘autorenfilme’ art films, intended to raise cinematic standards - the origins of early German film style

Film.Japan.
==1912 > Nikkatsu Studios is formed by the merger of four smaller Japanese film companies

Theater.United States.
==1912 > Houdini introduces the Water Torture Cell act

Theater.Britain.
==1912 > The Old Vic theater company is established in London


1913

Film.India.
==May.03 > The origins of Indian cinema: the first completely Indian feature film is released

Film.Theater.United States.
==May.26 > The Actors' Equity Association is organized in New York City

Dance.France.Russia.
==May.29 > Ballets Russes premieres Igor Stravinsky’s The Rites of Spring in Paris, provoking the audience to riot in the theater

Film.United States.
==Jul.17 > A Noise from the Deep is released - Mabel Normand delivers the first recorded pie-in-the-face to Fatty Arbuckle

Film.Austria-Hungary.
==Aug.19 > Emperor Franz Joseph views a presentation of Caruso singing chords in a primitive sound-movie (kinetoscope) - the unimpressed Emperor applauds politely

Film.United States.
==Oct.01 > Director D. W. Griffith leaves the Biograph Company, taking most of the skilled personnel with him - the once-powerful Biograph quickly declines

Dance.France.Russia.
==fall > ~Diaghilev fires the brilliant but erratic Nijinsky from the Ballets Russes

Film.Britain.United States.
==Nov.05 > Vivien Leigh (Vivian Mary Hartley) is born in Darjeeling, India, to a wealthy family

Film.United States.
==Nov.24 > Universal releases the first major American exploitation feature film: Traffic in Souls, which portrays prostitution
==Dec.16 > Charlie Chaplin begins his film career, at Keystone for $150 a week
==Dec.23 > Impoverished Italian immigrant Rudolph Valentino (Rodolfo Guglielmi) arrives in New York City
==Dec.29 > After arriving “in a place called Hollywood,” Cecil B. DeMille begins shooting The Squaw Man, the first feature-length film made in Hollywood and first film to use an art director - ~Hollywood formally adopts its name
==Dec.29 > Release of the first episode of the first cliff-hanger serial (The Adventures of Kathlyn)
==Dec.--- > The Hearst-Selig Company becomes the first US-based newsreel distributor
==1913 > Oliver Hardy begins his career as a comedy actor
==1913 > The first film version of The Werewolf is released
==1913 > Sam Warner transforms his brothers’ Ohio distribution company into a film production studio

Film.France.
==1913 > The screen debut of the murderous ape-man, in the French movie Balaoo
==1913 > The once-famous French producer-director Georges Méliès releases his last movie, and becomes perhaps the first film giant to fade into obscurity
==1913-1914 > Director Louis Feuillade’s Fantomas series popularizes the crime serial
==1913 > There are three hundred cinemas in France, with thirty-seven in Paris alone, one of which employs an orchestra of sixty

Film.Scandinavia.
==1913 > The first major film by Victor Sjöström - Ingeborg Holm - begins the rise of the Swedish film industry

Film.Germany.
==1913 > The proto-expressionist Student of Prague is released; the first ‘art film’ with an original script, and the first significant German film to break with theatrical tradition

Film.Russia.
==1913 > The first use of a mobile camera in a feature film is a tracking shot in The Twilight of a Woman’s Soul, filmed in Moscow

Theater.United States.
==1913 > Debts force the closure of Buffalo Bill Cody’s Wild West Show
==1913 > The Theater Syndicate and the Shubert Brothers reach an agreement after thirteen years of fierce competition over the control of theater in the United States - ~under pressure from films, American theater tour companies are declining

Dance.Russia.
==1913 > Anna Pavlova begins touring internationally to encourage interest in ballet


1914

Film.Mexico.United States.
==Jan.05 > Pancho Villa signs an exclusive contract with the Mutual Film Corporation for $25,000 - claims that Villa scheduled battles and executions to accommodate filmmakers are untrue (see May.09)

Film.United States.
==Feb.07 > Kid Auto Races at Venice is released, featuring Charlie Chaplin’s first performance as The Tramp
==Mar.03 > The first Perils of Pauline serial is released

Film.Britain.
==Apr.02 > Alec Guinness is born in London
==Apr.09 > The first feature-length color film, The World, the Flesh, and the Devil, in Kinemacolor, premieres in London


George Bernard Shaw

Theater.Britain.
==Apr.11 > George Bernard Shaw's Pygmalion premieres in London

Film.United States.
==Apr.12 > The Strand - the first American ‘movie palace’ built specifically for films - opens in Times Square with seating for 3,300
==Apr.15 > D. W. Griffith buys the rights to the racist novel The Clansman, planning to make an epic film from it
==May.08-15 > Paramount Pictures is formed as Adolph Zukor combines with Jesse Lasky, Samuel Goldfish (later Goldwyn), and Cecil B. DeMille

Film.Mexico.United States.
==May.09 > The film The Life of General Villa opens in New York - Raoul Walsh does his first directing (as assistant) and acts in some scenes… as does the real Pancho Villa

Film.United States.
==May.15 > The Marx Brothers - already experienced performers - first appear under the names of Groucho, Harpo, and Chico, in Galesburg, Illinois
==May.26 > The New York Times acknowledges the new verb ‘to film’ and the new noun ‘movie’

Theater.China.
==Jun.09 > Peking’s first Western-style theater, the ‘First Stage,’ is established

Theater.Britain.
==Jun.23 > Richard Strauss and the Ballets Russes open the opera Joseph in London

Film.United States.
==1914 > Director Francis Ford convinces his brother Seamus to migrate from Ireland to America - Seamus later takes the name John Ford
==1914 > Realistic Western actor William S. Hart begins his film career

Film.Italy.
==1914 > The overblown, three-hour Italian spectacle Cabiria is released - the screenplay by d’Annunzio is the first written by a major literary figure - the first use of tracking shots in a major film

Film.Germany.
==1914 > Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde make their first film appearance in the German Ein Seltsamer Fall


 
 
Sources include:
Gene Brown.  Movie Time.  1995
(The Film 100)
Phil Hardy, ed.  The Encyclopedia of Horror Movies.  1986
(Internet Movie Database)
Ephraim Katz.  The Film Encyclopedia, 2nd Edition.  1994
George Ochoa and Melinda Corey.  The Timeline Book of the Arts.  1995
David Parkinson.  History of Film.  1995
David Puttnam.  The Undeclared War: The Struggle for Control of the World’s Film Industry.  1997
David Shipman.  The Story of Cinema.  1982

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