Giulio Douhet

.
(2) The Militarization of Aviation, 1911-1914
1911

United States.Military.
==Jan.07 > The first aircraft trials with live bombs are held at San Francisco 
==Jan.10 > The first photo is taken from a flying airplane, by Major Erickson over San Diego 
beginning.1911 > The first US military flight school is established at the College Park Airbase in Maryland
==Jan.18 > The US Congress finally appropriates funds for aviation 
==Jan.18 > Eugene Ely accomplishes the first landing on a ship, on the USS Pennsylvania in San Francisco
==Jan.26 > Glenn Curtiss demonstrates the first American seaplane, at San Diego 

France.
==Jan.--- > France has 353 certified pilots - compared with 57 in Britain, 46 in Germany, 32 in Italy, 27 in Belgium, and only 26 in America 

New Zealand.
==Feb.05 > The first powered flight in New Zealand, by the Walsh brothers 

United States.
==Feb.17 > The first amphibian flight to and from a ship is accomplished by Glenn Curtiss at San Diego

India.
==Feb.18 > The world’s first official air-mail flight, by Pequet across the Jumna River in India 

United States.Military.
==Mar.04 > The first funds for US naval aviation are appropriated: $25,000 

Belgium.Military.
==Mar.23 > Belgium establishes its first military flight training school 

Austria-Hungary.Military.
==Mar.--- > The Austrian Army holds its first air trials, and buys eight Taubes

Britain.Military.
==Mar.--- > The first four Royal Navy pilots begin their flight training 
==Apr.01 > The first British air unit is formed: the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers, with airship and airplane companies 

France.Britain.
==Apr.12 > Prier makes the first non-stop London-to-Paris flight 

United States.Military.
==May.08 > The US Navy orders its first aircraft - traditionally considered the birth of US naval aviation 

Britain.
==mid.May > A flying demonstration at Hendon impresses British MP’s, including Winston Churchill 

United States.Military.
==Jun.--- > Hap Arnold becomes the 29th licensed pilot in America, and one of the first two in the US Army 
==Jul.01 > First flight of the first US naval aircraft, at Hammondsport, New York

Britain.
==Jul.04 > The first air cargo is delivered in Britain

United States.Military.
==Jul.06 > The first US naval airbase is selected at Annapolis

Germany.
==Jul.--- > The German Air Fleet League promotes national subsidies for the struggling German aviation industry 

United States.
==Aug.01 > The flamboyant drama critic Harriet Quimby becomes the first woman in America to qualify as a pilot (or Aug.02) - see Apr.16.1912 & Jul.01.1912
==Aug.14-25 > Atwood flies from St. Louis to New York 

Italy.Military.
==Aug.--- > For the first time, aircraft participate in Italian army maneuvers

Britain.
==Sep.09 > Hamel begins series of London-Windsor mail flights - the world’s first regular air mail service 

United States.
==Sep.17-Nov.05 > The first transcontinental flight in North America is accomplished by C. P. Rodgers in Vin Fiz, after surviving numerous crashes, forced landings, and injuries
==Sep.23 > The first official air mail delivery in America consists of a five mile flight in New York 

Germany.Military.
==Sep.--- > German Army maneuvers use airplanes for the first time 

Libya.Military.
==Oct.22 > The first known wartime reconnaissance flight, by Piazza between Tripoli and Azizia - considered the first use of an airplane in war (or Oct.23) 

Germany.Military.
==Oct.25 > German War Minister Heeringen successfully urges continued spending on airships, despite the German Army’s growing preference for airplanes 

Austria-Hungary.Military.
==Oct.--- > Transport Command forms the first Austro-Hungarian air unit

France.Military.
==Oct.-Nov. > The world’s first exhibit of potential warplanes, in Rheims 

Libya.Military.
==Nov.01 > Italian planes bomb an oasis in Libya - the first aerial bombing and the first offensive use of aircraft 

France.
==Nov.26 > France requires pilots to obtain certificates, and imposes possibly the first flight regulations 

Britain.Military.
==Nov.--- > Asquith calls on the Committee for Imperial Defense to develop an efficient air force - ~rapid increases in the British aviation budget

France.Military.
==Nov.--- > French air units undergo bombing exercises

United States.Military.
==Dec.20 > The US Navy begins experiments in radio transmissions from aircraft 

Britain.Military.
==Dec.--- > The Royal Naval Flying School is established
==Dec.--- > Churchill encourages the development of British naval air forces - he foresees a combat role for aircraft; makes machine-gunnery and bombing a part of training 
==Dec.--- > Lt. Sampson successfully flies off the deck of HMS Africa

United States.
==1911 > Stunt pilot Lincoln Beachey attains an altitude of 11,600 feet by simply flying upwards until he runs out of fuel

United States.Military.
==1911 > American Lt. Scott makes the first bomb sight 

Britain.Military.
==1911 > Captain Lefron achieves a thirty mile radio transmission from the British airship Beta 
==1911 > de Havilland builds the B. E. I. biplane, archetype of the WWI fighters 

France.Military.
==1911 > The ship Foudre is converted to a seaplane tender - the first French proto-aircraft carrier 
==1911 > Nieuport becomes the first to equip an aircraft with a machine-gun 

Italy.Military.
==1911 > The first torpedo is released from an airplane, by Guidoni

Russia.
==1911 > Yuriev designs a modern helicopter configuration 

Russia.Military.
==1911 > The first Russian naval aviation unit is formed, in Sebastopol 
==1911 > Russian pilots practice aerial attacks on submarines 

Japan.Military.
==1911 > The origins of the Japanese Naval Air Force: the first six officers are sent abroad for pilot training - the first Naval Air Base is established at Oppama (Yokosuka)


1912

United States.Military.
==Jan.10 > First flight of a flying boat, by Glenn Curtiss in New York

France.Military.
==Jan.25 > France begins organizing its military aircraft into regular squadrons 

United States.Military.
==Jan.--- > The Los Angeles Air Show stages Glenn Martin’s mock bombing of a city, with assistance from US Army and Navy - the audience cheers wildly 

United States.
==Feb.08 > The first flight from the American west to east coasts lands in Jacksonville, Florida 

France.Military.
==Feb.11 > A rally at the Sorbonne successfully raises money to expand the French Air Force

France.
==Feb.22 > The Deperdussin Monocoque Racer 1912 version sets a speed record exceeding 100 mph - it boasts and advanced design with a stress-supporting wooden fuselage and a rotary engine

Libya.Military.
==Feb.24-25 > Captain Piazza takes the first known aerial photos of enemy forces - Arab tribesmen in Tripoli 

Britain.Military.
==Feb.28 > Henderson’s Committee for Imperial Defense subcommittee recommends the formation of a Royal Flying Corps 

Germany.Military.
==Feb.--- > Captain Seuter warns the German Committee of Imperial Defense that in the event of war, aerial combat is inevitable and control of the air is crucial - he is ignored 

United States.Military.
==Mar.01 > The world’s first parachute descent from an airplane, made by Captain Berry at St. Louis 

Libya.Military.
==Mar.10-Jun > Italy is using non-rigid airships in Libya for reconnaissance and light bombing 

France.Military.
==Mar.29 > The French Parliament passes a bill organizing military aeronautics 

Germany.Military.
==Apr.04 > The Kaiser’s son Prince Henry appeals to the public for funds to develop German aviation 

United States.
==Apr.06 > US Naval aviator Captain Chambers coins the terms ‘airplane’ and ‘landing gear’ 

France.Britain.
==Apr.16 > The American Harriet Quimby is the first woman to fly the English Channel, but her feat is driven off the front pages by the sinking of the Titantic

Libya.Military.
==Apr.19 > Italians take the first known aerial movies of enemy positions, from an airship over Tripoli 

Britain.Military.
==May.09 > The Royal Navy demonstrates the use of planes for bombing and for submarine detection - ~achieves the first seaplane takeoff from a moving ship
==May.13 > The British Royal Flying Corps is formed from earlier army and navy air units 

United States.Military.
==May.22 > Lieutenant Cunningham becomes the first US Marine officer to report for flight training - the start of USMC aviation - in Aug, Cunningham solos after only three hours of instruction 

United States.
==May.30 > Wilbur Wright dies of typhoid fever at age 45 

United States.Military.
==Jun.02 > The first automatic weapon is fired from an airplane: Lt. Colonel Lewis tests his new light machine gun - the cold response from the US military causes Lewis to take his invention to Europe 

Britain.Military.
==Jun.19 > The British Army establishes the Central Flying School

Britain.
==Jun.--- > The Royal Navy achieves a ten mile radio transmission from an airplane 

Germany.Military.
==Jun.--- > The first German Naval Airship Division is formed 

France.Military.
==mid-year > Five French air squadrons are in service with field armies, with a sixth squadron in Algeria 

United States.
==Jul.01 > Harriet Quimby, the first female pilot in America, becomes the world’s first female air fatality when she is flipped out of her plane over Boston
==Jul.02 > The Akron, the first American dirigible, explodes off Atlantic City, killing five

Italy.Military.
==summer > The Italian Army forms an aviation inspectorate and an experimental institute

United States.
==Aug.16 > The Glenn L. Martin Company is incorporated in Santa Ana - ~the origins of the California aeronautics industry 

Britain.Military.
==Aug.--- > The Royal Flying Corps orders BE-2 aircraft as standard equipment

Belgium.Military.
==Sep.12 > The Belgian Army test fires a machine gun from an aircraft

Germany.Military.
==Sep.26 > A German General Staff committee recommends an expanded, autonomous air command - but no action is taken 

Britain.Military.
==Sep.--- > In maneuvers in East Anglia, the British Army makes extensive use of airships and airplanes for reconnaissance 

United States.Military.
==Oct.26-Dec.18 > The US Navy conducts its first trials for submarine spotting from an airplane, over Chesapeake Bay 

France.Military.
==fall > The French National Aviation Committee is established, chaired by Clemenceau - it raises four million francs to develop aviation 

France.
==Nov.03 > First flight of the first all-metal plane, near Issy 

United States.Military.
==Nov.12 > The US Navy’s first successful launch of an airplane by catapult 

International.
==Dec.05 > Jacques Schneider of France proposes to sponsor international seaplane speed races

International.
==1912 > The Paris Aviation Conference unanimously rejects the ban on aerial bombardments 

United States.Military.
==1912 > The US Army cuts aviation funding

United States.
==1912 > The Loughead brothers form an aircraft company in California which will become known as Lockheed 

Britain.Military.
==1912 > The British de Havilland BS.1 is flown - the origins of fighter aircraft 

Britain.
==1912 > Sopwith Aviation Company is established in Britain

Scandinavia.
==1912 > In Denmark, aviation pioneer Ellehammer builds an early helicopter capable of lifting off of the ground 

Germany.
==1912 > Anthony Fokker establishes an aircraft factory in Germany 
==1912 > The first regular air service is begun, between Berlin and Friedrichshaven by rigid airship 

Austria-Hungary.Military.
==1912 > The Austrian air arm is organized under Uzelac 

Russia.Military.
==1912 > The Russian Army attains second place behind France in the early race to build aircraft

Japan.Military.
==1912 > The Japanese Navy establishes an Aeronautical Research Committee 
==1912 > Takijiro Onishi is commissioned in the Imperial Navy; he becomes a pioneering Japanese military aviator and, in 1945, creator of the kamikaze corps


1913

Britain.Military.
==Jan.03 > Churchill encourages the military development of airships 

United States.Military.
==Jan.06 > The US Navy uses aircraft on maneuvers for the first time, off Guantanamo Bay 

Britain.Military.
==Jan.07 > Churchill announces to the Committee for Imperial Defense that he's developing an early anti-aircraft gun 

United States.
==Jan.13 > The first regular air cargo service in America begins delivering baked beans from Boston to New York City 

Italy.Military.
==early.1913 > Italian naval aviation is begun

Ottoman Empire.Military.
==Feb.06 > A Greek plane drops grenades on Turkish ships at Nagara in the Dardanelles, in a very early instance of aerial bombing 

Britain.Military.
==Feb.21-Mar.08 > Numerous nighttime sightings are reported in England of ‘German airships’, to the amusement of the German press 

United States.Military.
==Mar.05 > The US Signal Corps forms the First Aero Squadron at San Diego, the US Army’s first aviation unit 

France.Military.
==Mar.--- > Ferdinand Foch allegedly says “aviation is fine as sport... but as an instrument of war it is useless.” 

International.
==Apr.16 > The first Schneider Trophy race is held at Monaco in a seaplane meet - after WWI, the Schneider Trophy will be a major stimulus in aircraft development

Latin America.
==Apr.27 > Fowler flies across the Panama Canal Zone, in what is technically the first nonstop transcontinental flight

Mexico.Military.
==Apr.--- > Mexican dictator Huerta sends fifty officers to France to study aviation 

United States.
==May.01 > The Langley Aerodynamical Laboratory is reopened by the Smithsonian Institution 

Russia.
==May.13 > First flight of Igor Sikorsky’s four-engined Bolshoi (or Le Grande), the first truly large plane 

Mexico.Military.
==May.29-Aug > ~Mexican Federal gunships are bombed in Guaymas Bay in the Gulf of California by Masson, flying for revolutionary General Obregón - the world’s first serious air attack on warships 

United States.
==May.30 > MIT begins teaching aerodynamics 

Italy.Military.
==Jun.--- > The Italian War Ministry props up the Caproni aircraft factory - ~Caproni designs the first aircraft conceived as a bomber 

United States.
==Jul.19 > Bryant introduces skywriting, over Seattle 

United States.Military.
==Jul.--- > Congress finally funds the US Army aviation section - ~the army has only six aviators and twelve planes 

United States.
==Aug.10 > Sperry demonstrates an aircraft automatic pilot based on a ship’s gyroscope (or 1909 or 1914) 

France.
==Aug.20 > The first instance of a pilot parachuting from an aircraft, in France

Russia.
==Aug.27 > Lt. Nesterov performs the world’s first aerial loop at Kiev, and is promptly arrested for endangering government property 

Britain.Military.
==Sep.17 > First flight of the Avro 504 - 8,000 will be built during WWI and it will be used by the RAF as late as 1940 

France.Military.
==Sep.21 > Pegoud makes the first sustained inverted flight 
==Sep.23 > First flight across the Mediterranean: Garros takes eight hours to fly 453 miles from the French Riviera to Tunisia 
==Sep.29 > The Deperdussin Monocoque Racer 1913 version sets a speed record exceeding 200 kmph (126 mph) - the record stands until after WWI

France.Military.
==Sep.--- > French army maneuvers in Languedoc make successful use of air reconnaissance. 

Germany.Military.
==Sep.---(to Oct) > The first two German naval airships crash, killing the unit commander and nearly destroying the program

United States.Military.
==Oct.19 > The first comprehensive American plan for developing naval aviation

Germany.Military.
==Oct.--- > Semi-autonomous airship and airplane commands are established by the German Army 

Mexico.Military.
==Nov.30 > American pilots flying for different factions in the Mexican Revolution exchange pistol shots, near Naco in Sonora - the world’s first air-to-air combat 

France.Military.
==late.1913 > The French Army is using the Morane Parasol monoplane 

Germany.Military.
==late.1913 > Fifty German airmen are killed in a military dirigible accident 

Britain.Military.
end.1913 > The Royal Navy is building a chain of coastal naval air stations 
==Dec.20 > Hugh Dowding receives his pilot’s license 

France.Military.
==Dec.28 > In France, Legagneux becomes the first pilot to use oxygen in flight, reaching 20,079 feet 

Britain.Military.
==Dec.--- > The British Army creates an Aeronautics Inspection Department

Russia.Military.
==Dec.--- > Russian air command is divided between the General Staff and the Technical Directorate, creating administrative confusion 

Mexico.Military.
==winter > In Mexico, Huerta’s French-trained air corps is operational 

United States.Military.
==1913 > The US has spent less than $1/2 million on military aviation since 1908, 1/50 the amount of France or Germany 

United States.
==1913 > The Glenn Martin Company builds the world’s first trainer aircraft 

Britain.Military.
==1913 > HMS Hermes is commissioned as the world’s first seaplane carrier 
==1913 > Hugh Trenchard takes command of the Royal Flying Corps flight school

France.Military.
==1913 > The French naval air service is established

Italy.Military.
==1913 > Italian military theoretician Douhet publishes Rules for the Use of Airplanes in War in 1913, the first doctrinal manual for airpower

Germany.Military.
==1913 > A German engineer invents a synchronization mechanism for a fixed machine-gun mounted on aircraft 
==1913 > Germany launches a crash program to catch up with France in military aircraft - Fokker wins military contracts 

Japan.Military.
==1913 > The Japanese Imperial Navy puts a seaplane tender in service, the first Japanese proto-aircraft carrier 


1914

United States.
==Jan.01 > The US Weather Bureau begins publishing a daily Northern Hemisphere weather map to aid aviators 

Britain.Military.
==Jan.01 > The Royal Naval Air Service is established - British naval air units are again separate from the Royal Flying Corps (officially established Jul.01)

United States.
==Jan.01 > World’s first powered airline begins service by flying a passenger from St. Petersburg to Tampa - the operation folds within four months 
==Jan.13 > Orville Wright wins a patent suit against Glenn Curtiss 

France.Military.
==mid.Jan > The French government forms the Superior Council of Aeronautics to consider military applications of aviation research 

United States.Military.
==Jan.20 > The US Naval Air Base at Pensacola is established

Russia.Military.
==Jan.--- > First flight of Sikorsky’s Ilya Morometz, the world’s first four-engined bomber 

Morocco.Military.
==Jan.--- > France is using aircraft to attack Moroccan tribesmen, dropping small bombs and bundles of darts 

Austria-Hungary.Military.
==early.1914 > Austrian Finance Minister Teleszky calls aviation a “worthless military fad” - ~Austrian air units severely underfunded 

Palestine.
==end.Feb > Turkish aviators are killed near the Sea of Galilee during an attempt to fly from Damascus to Jerusalem 

Britain.Military.
==Feb.--- > First flight of the Bristol Scout, which will become a widely used British fighter in early WWI 

RusRussia.sia.
==Feb.--- > Sikorsky’s giant Ilya Morometz is put in service as a passenger plane 

China.
==Mar.11 > Nanyuan Aviation School near Peking begins flights 

Britain.Military.
==Mar.--- > Churchill endorses a plan to use aircraft to overawe native populations in the event of colonial revolts 

International.
==Apr.20 > The much expanded Schneider Trophy races are held at Monaco - the British Sopwith Tabloid takes the trophy 

Mexico.Military.
==Apr.25 > US naval aviators go into combat for the first time, near Veracruz 

France.Military.
==Apr.--- > France establishes the ‘Twelfth Directorate’, an autonomous air unit directly under War Minister 

Mexico.Military.
==May.02 > US pilots fly the world’s first air mission in direct support of ground troops, near Veracruz 
==May.06 > US Pacific Fleet commander Admiral Howard protests primitive air raids on Mazatlán by pilots flying for the Mexican revolutionaries

Britain.Military.
==May.--- > Future Air Marshall Portal, riding for Oxford, defeats Cambridge in a renowned motorcycle race

Atlantic.
==Jun.06 > The first long-distance flight over sea, Scotland to Norway

France.Military.
==mid.Jun > A French War Ministry commission concludes that bombing by airplanes offers interesting possibilities 

Britain.Military.
==late.Jun > The Royal Flying Corps conducts reconnaissance exercises 

Russia.
==Jun.29 > Sikorsky serves the first in-flight meal during a flight from St. Petersburg to Kiev on his massive Ilya Mouromets

France.Military.
==Jun.--- > A French attempt at an armored plane proves too heavy 

Britain.Military.
==Jul.28 > RNAS Commander Longmore practices torpedo bombing 

International.
==Jul.28-Aug.04 > WORLD WAR I BEGINS

Introduction   ///   (1) The Beginning of Flight, 1903-1910

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