Dr. William Gorgas

(1) 1904-1908

==early.1904 > The very severe cholera epidemic that has been ravaging the Philippines since 1902 begins to subside 

Epidemic.United States.
==Feb.29 > A woman dies of plague in Concord, California, the last human victim of the first San Francisco outbreak that has been underway since 1899 - ~the plague spreads into the interior of the American west, where it becomes endemic in wildlife 

Epidemic.South Africa.
==Feb.--- > Pneumonic plague strikes Johannesburg; Mahatma Gandhi sets up a treatment center 

Epidemic.Public Health.Brazil.
Smallpox in Rio de Janeiro: 
==Mar.early, to 1905 > A smallpox epidemic erupts in Rio 
==May.--- > A mass smallpox vaccination program is begun in the city 
==Oct.--- > Brazil enacts an ineffective mandatory smallpox vaccination law 
==Nov.10-15 > Severe anti-vaccination riots break out in Rio, joined by part of the army - the revolt is firmly suppressed by the Brazilian government

Psychology.United States.
==Mar.20 > The behaviorist psychologist B.F. Skinner is born in Pennsylvania 

Public Health.France.
==Apr.--- > Helme reports that out of 700 French doctors questioned, 312 feel that the fight against tuberculosis is futile 

Epidemic.Southwest Africa.
==Apr.--- > A typhoid epidemic erupts among German troops in Southwest Africa 

Public Health.United States.
==May.14 > After decades as the head of the American Red Cross, Clara Barton resigns over charges of financial incompetence 

Public Health.United States.
==Jun.06 > The American National Tuberculosis Association is established - ~rising US public health effort against tuberculosis 

Public Health.China.
==Jun.29 > China joins the International Red Cross

Public Health.Panama.
==Jun.--- > Dr. William Gorgas’ public health team begins to arrive in Panama; within about a month all have contracted malaria - ~Gorgas’ repeated urgent requests are ignored by Canal authorities 

==summer to 1907 > A very severe plague epidemic strikes India: a horrendous outbreak strikes Bombay, and soon sweeps into the interior - 1,300,000 die by the summer of 1905, about six million die altogether - a tough campaign to eradicate rats is enforced in Bombay 

==Sep.--- > Cholera outbreak in Baku on the Caspian Sea 

==Nov.21 > Cases of yellow fever begin to appear in Panama 

==Dec.10 > Pavlov wins the Nobel Prize for Physiology for his work on digestion 

==1904 > A very severe cholera epidemic ravages India from 1899 to ~1909, part of the sixth cholera pandemic 

==1904 > The plague pandemic enters Siam 

Research.United States.
==1904 > Working at the Rockefeller Institute in New York, Landsteiner discovers blood Rh factor 

==1904 > The Curies demonstrate that radium rays can kill diseased cells 

Psychology.United States.
==1904 > Psychologist G. Stanley Hall publishes Adolescence - ~the origins of child psychology in America 

==1904 > Freud publishes The Psychopathology of Everyday Life


==early.1905 > Persia is struck by a cholera epidemic

Epidemic.Public Health.Panama.
Gorgas suppresses yellow fever at the Panama Canal
==early.1905 > Panama turns over public health functions in Panama City and Colón to Dr. Gorgas 
==late spring-summer > The yellow fever outbreak causes a panic in Panama: three-quarters of the American canal workers flee, and work is virtually halted
==Jul.03 > A plague death occurs in Panama - the disease panic is at its height
==Jul.26 > Stevens arrives as the new Chief Engineer in Panama - ~Gorgas’ public health efforts are given top priority; he initiates a very tough public health regimen in the Canal Zone
==Dec.--- > Yellow fever has eliminated from Panama

Public Health.United States.
==Feb.20 > The US Supreme Court rules that compulsory vaccination laws are constitutional in Jacobson v Massachusetts

==May.--- > German microbiologists Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann discover Treponema pallidum to be the causative agent of syphilis 

==Jun.28 > Dr. Beaurieux observes that the head of the murderer Languille seems to survive for several seconds after it has been guillotined

==Jun.--- to Apr.1906 > A plague outbreak strikes Barcelona 

Epidemic.Public Health.United States.
==Jul.22-Oct. > The last major outbreak of yellow fever in the United States, at New Orleans, is ended by a mosquito control campaign by the US Public Health Service 

==summer-fall > Polio outbreak in rural Sweden - Wickman proves that polio is contagious and can be spread by carriers

==Aug.31 > Since the start of its war with Russia, the Japanese Army has suffered up to 200,000 cases of beriberi; the Japanese Navy, with better balanced rations, has had none at all

==Dec.--- > Freud publishes Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality

==1905 > A whooping cough epidemic that has been underway in Italy since 1901 is finally brought under control

==1905 > The plague pandemic enters Burma 

==1905 > In Brazil, Recife is hit hard by a smallpox outbreak 

==1905 > In Britain, researchers Ernst Starling and William Bayliss coin the term ‘hormone’ 

==1905 > Working in Beirut, Bancroft establishes that dengue is transmitted by mosquitoes 

==1905 > Working with rice variants in Kuala Lumpur, Fletcher shows that beriberi is evidently a nutritional deficiency

==1905 > In the Netherlands, Pekelharing detects the existence of “unrecognized substances” (vitamins) in foods 

==1905 > Robert Koch wins the Nobel prize in Medicine 
==1905 > Albert Einhorn discovers the anesthetic procaine, which he markets under the name Novocain 

Research.United States.
==1905 > Crile performs the first direct blood transfusion 
==1905 > Pioneering American brain surgeon Harvey Cushing begins work in neurosurgery 
==1905 > American surgeons Guthrie and Carrel perfect the suturing of blood vessels 

Public Health.United States.
==1905 > The origins of medical social work in America, in Massachusetts 

==1905 > In France, results from the first IQ tests are published by Binet and Simon 


==early.1906 > In the vicinity of Lake Victoria, 200,000 Ugandans have died of sleeping sickness since the outbreak began in 1901 

Research.United States.
==Jun.04 > Howard Taylor Ricketts identifies ticks as the vector for Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever 

Public Health.United States.
==Jun.30 > Roosevelt signs the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act 

Epidemic.South Africa.
==1906 > Tuberculosis is reaching epidemic proportions in South Africa

Epidemic.New Zealand.
==1906 > Whooping cough epidemic in New Zealand, to 1908

==1906 > Plague outbreak in Saigon 

==1906 > Outbreaks of yellow fever in Havana, to 1906 

Public Health.Brazil.
==1906 > Cruz completes the elimination of yellow fever from Rio 

Research.United States.
==1906 > Pellagra is first diagnosed, at the Alabama Hospital for the Colored Insane 

==1906 > British researcher Frederick Hopkins proposes the existence of essential nutrients that will eventually be known as vitamins, and suggests that scurvy and rickets are caused by their deficiency - his work is published in 1912

==1906 > In Oslo, Axel Holst studies food supplements (vitamins) 

==1906 > In France, Bordet and Gengou discover the cause of whooping cough 
==1906 > Albert Calmette and Jean Marie Guérin of the Pasteur Institute develop BCG vaccine for tuberculosis from attenuated bacteria - not used on humans until 1924 

==1906 > The Wasserman blood test for syphilis is developed - the start of the use of complement fixation tests 
==1906 > von Pirquet coins the word ‘allergy’ 
==1906 > The German physician Alois Alzheimer describes presenile degeneration of the brain, a disease that is later named after him

Research.East Africa.
==1906 > Robert Koch arrives at Tanga in German East Africa to research a cure for sleeping sickness - he eventually develops an arsenic derivative remedy

==1906 > Eduard Zirm performs first cornea transplant  (or 1905)

==1906 > British physiology professor Charles Scott Sherrington publishes his landmark Integrative Action of the Nervous System - ~he deduces the existence of the neural synapse 

Psychology.United States.
==1906 > Alfred Binet’s pioneering IQ test reaches the US 

==1906 > Jung begins to correspond with Freud 


Research.United States.
==Jan.15 > Taggart first describes the use of gold dental inlays

Public Health.United States.
==Mar.--- > Typhoid carrier ‘Typhoid Mary’ Mallon is apprehended in New York, after a wild struggle 

Epidemic.Public Health.United States.
==Aug.01 to Apr.1909 > Renewed plague outbreak in San Francisco - the effective public health response limits the impact of the disease

==late.1907 to 1908 > A severe cholera outbreak strikes Hejaz in Arabia, killing 25,000 - sporadic outbreaks to 1912 

==1907 > A cholera epidemic sweeps the Volga basin 

Public Health.Siam.
==1907 > Improvements in the Bangkok water supply ends the threat of cholera 

==1907 > Nearly two million Indians die of plague in 1907 alone 

==1907 > The plague pandemic enters Tunisia

Epidemic.West Africa.
==1907 > Sleeping sickness has killed 35% of the population of the island of Príncipe, off the coast of Gabon, since 1902 

Epidemic.East Africa.
==1907-1920 > British authorities evacuate a million people from the shores of Lake Victoria in response to the regional sleeping sickness epidemic

==1907 > Ehrlich develops a chemotherapeutic cure for sleeping sickness. 

Epidemic.United States.
==1907 > Polio outbreak in New York City

==1907 > Whooping cough epidemic in Samoa 

==1907 > A survey shows that half of the small children in French hospitals are suffering from rickets 

Public Health.France.
==1907 > The International Office of Public Health is established in Paris, the forerunner of the WHO (or 1909)

Public Health.Britain.
==1907 > Medical facilities are provided in British schools

Research.United States.
==1907 > Yale zoologist Ross Granville Harrison develops tissue culture 
==1907 > The American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Investigation are established 

==1907 > Alfred Adler publishes his main work: A Study of Organic Inferiority and Its Psychical Compensation

==1907 > Jung meets Freud 

==1907 > Pavlov publishes Conditioned Reflexes... (or 1906)

United States.
==1907 > The US Department of Agriculture Animal Health and Plant Health Inspection Service is founded 

==1907 > The world’s first international conference on infant care is held in Basel 

==1907 > The Burmese Medical Institute is established


Epidemic.Public Health.West Africa.
==Jan to Oct > Plague outbreak at Accra in the Gold Coast - it is contained by a vigorous public health response by British authorities

==Apr to Sep > Renewed smallpox epidemic in Rio de Janeiro kills 9,000

Psychology.United States.
==May.06 > The former mental patient Beers founds the Connecticut Society for Mental Hygiene - ~start of an American movement to reform of the treatment of mental illness 

==late summer to fall > A very severe malaria epidemic strikes the Punjab 

==1908 > Cholera spreads from the Volga Basin to the Baltic, the Black Sea, Siberia, and Persia 

Epidemic.Latin America.
==1908 > The plague pandemic arrives in Trinidad, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Peru - it becomes endemic in northwestern South America

==1908 > Ehrlich and Metchnikoff share the Nobel Prize in Medicine 

==1908 > Experiments in Vienna indicate that polio is infectious

==1908 > In France, Mantoux develops a skin test for tuberculosis 

==1908 > The First International Congress of Psychoanalysis is held in Salzburg
==1908 > Informal gatherings of psychologists at Freud’s home are organized into the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society 

Psychology.United States.
==1908 > Brill translates Freud into English, and coins the word ‘id’ 

United States.
==1908 > The American Society for Pharmacology is established 
==1908 > The US Navy Nurse Corps is organized
==1908 > New York City pharmacist Max Kiss establishes the Ex-Lax Company 

==1908 > The German journal Archive for Race Hygiene begins publication, promoting eugenics


Portrait of Dr. Gorgas courtesy of Office of Medical History, OTSG

Medicine: Introduction      //    (2) Medicine: 1909-1914