Sigmund Freud

(2)  1909-1914

United States.
==Mar.01 > America’s first university school of nursing in is established at the University of Minnesota

==Aug.31 > Ehrlich injects the anti-syphilitic drug Salvarsan into his first test rabbit - the first antibacterial therapeutic agent is developed

Epidemic.East Africa.
==end.1909 > The sleeping sickness epidemic around Lake Victoria has waned

==1909 > Cholera outbreaks occur in Hungary, to 1913

==1909 > The plague pandemic enters Morocco, in small outbreaks near Casablanca

Public Health.Philippines.
==1909 > Smallpox is largely eradicated in the Philippines

Public Health.United States.
==1909 > Charles Wardell Stiles persuades the Rockefeller Foundation to create a commission to eradicate hookworm in the south

Public Health.Chile.
==1909 > ~In Chile, nearly all towns lack running water or sewage systems - deaths from contagious disease until 1914 are at over 100,000/year

Public Health.Britain.
==1909 > Parliament suspends compulsory smallpox vaccines in Britain

Research.United States.
==1909 > Howard Taylor Ricketts discovers Rickettsia, identifying it as the causative agent of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever - Ricketts dies in 1910 of typhus, another rickettsial disease

==1909 > French researcher Charles Nicolle confirms role of lice in the transmission of typhus

==1909 > Nicole Pende coins the word ‘endocrinology’

Psychology.United States.
==1909 > Freud visits America to speak at Clark University - he does not enjoy himself and detests the food


Public Health.United States.
==May.16 > The US Bureau of Mines is established - ~working with the Public Health Service, it begins studies of lung diseases

==May.27 > Robert Koch dies of a heart attack at age 67

==Jun.--- > A massive cholera outbreak begins in the Donets Basin in Russia
==Jul.20 > The Russian Council of Ministers calls for assistance from the International Red Cross against the spreading cholera epidemic

==summer > Severe cholera epidemic in southern Italy

==Aug.13 > Florence Nightingale dies

==Aug.26 > Freud psychoanalyzes the composer Gustav Mahler

The Manchurian plague epidemic:
==Aug.--- > Plague appears among trappers at Manchouli in northwestern Manchuria
==Sep.--- > Plague spreads rapidly southeast along the Chinese Eastern Railroad, moving  toward Harbin
==Oct.27 > Plague strikes Harbin - soon 2,000 corpses are littering the streets
==Dec.31 > Plague reaches Changchun
==Jan.05.1911 > Plague reaches Dairen
==Mar.01.1911 > The last plague case in Manchuria is recorded; 60,000 victims have died in the region

Public Health.Switzerland.
==Oct.30 > Henry Dunant, the founder of the Red Cross, dies in poverty in Switzerland

==Oct to Feb.1911 > Severe cholera outbreak in Madeira

Epidemic.East Indies.
==Nov.--- > The first plague case appears in the East Indies at Surabaya - ~the disease moves into interior of east Java by 1912

==1910 > Repeated cholera outbreaks in the Balkans, to 1922

Epidemic.South Africa.
==1910 > A third of the black miners working the Rand in the Transvaal are dying of pneumonia - Britain begin pressuring the mine owners to improve sanitary conditions

Public Health.Mexico.
==1910 > Mexico City has the highest death rate of any major city in the world

Public Health.Hawaii.
==1910 > A combined civilian and military effort largely rids Honolulu of malaria, plague, cholera, and yellow fever, by 1912

Research.United States.
==1910 > The first diagnoses of sickle cell anemia (by Herrick in Chicago) and of tularemia (by McCoy)

==1910 > Ehrlich’s Salvarsan is made available as a cure for syphilis
==1910 > Emil Kraepelin names Alzheimer's disease

==1910 > Freud helps to organize the International Psychoanalytical Association

United States.
==1910 > The Flexner Report for the Carnegie Foundation reveals that many American medical schools are worthless - ~medical education in the US is reformed and standards begin to greatly improve

==1910 > Yayoi establishes the first Japanese medical school for women, in the face of intense public criticism

==1910 > Australian nurse Elizabeth Kenny develops a physical therapy regimen for polio victims - she is opposed for years by the medical establishment


Public Health.China.
==Apr.03-28 > The International Plague Conference is held in Mukden - the origins of the Chinese public health system

==spring > ~ A major polio outbreak is underway in Sweden

==May to Oct > A serious plague outbreak erupts in Doukkala in southern Morocco - plague becomes endemic in Morocco to 1919

==Jul.01 > At the Lister Institute in London, Casimir Funk isolates B-complex and coins the word "vitamine" (or 1912 or 1913)

==mid.Oct > A severe cholera outbreak erupts in Tripoli

==1911 > Widespread cholera outbreaks in Persia, to 1912

==1911 > Cholera outbreak in Tunisia

Epidemic.South Pacific.
==1911 > A measles epidemic in Rotuma in Fiji kills one seventh of the population

Public Health.West Africa.
==1911 > After long delays, Portugal launches a public health campaign against sleeping sickness in Príncipe off West Africa - the disease is eradicated by 1914

Public Health.Africa.
==1911 > ~Health prospects for Europeans in Africa are improving

Research.United States.
==1911 > Francis Payton Rous demonstrates that tumors can be induced by viruses - his work is ignored for decades

==1911 > Adler disputes that all neuroses arise from sexual maladjustments and breaks with Freud at a Vienna Psychoanalytic Society conference

==1911 > The Rorschach blot test is developed
==1911 > Bleuler introduces the term ‘schizophrenia’

Psychology.United States.
==1911 > Brill establishes the New York Psychoanalytic Society

Psychology.New Zealand.
==1911 > The Mental Defectives Act in New Zealand establishes a scientific basis for treating the mentally ill


==Feb.10 > Joseph Lister dies

Public Health.United States.
==Apr.12 > Clara Barton, the founder of the American Red Cross, dies at age 90

==mid.Apr-late.Apr > At Torreón, the Mexican Federal army is ravaged by typhoid

Research.United States.
==Dec.07 > The Journal of the American Medical Association reports the first diagnosis of death by heart attack

==1912 > A severe sleeping sickness epidemic that has been ravaging the Congo since 1895 finally abates

Epidemic.East Africa.
==1912 > Plague outbreak in Nairobi and in the Kilimanjaro area

Epidemic.Central Africa.
==1912 > Sleeping sickness appears among the Sara people of southern Chad, killing a third of them by 1940

Public Health.East Indies.
==1912 > Dutch authorities begin enforcing tough public health measures in the plague regions of east Java

==1912 > A serious plague outbreak occurs in the Mekong Delta

==1912 > Plague outbreak in Ecuador - the US sends a medical commission

==1912 > Plague outbreaks in Cuba and Puerto Rico

Public Health.United States.
==1912 > The US Public Health Service is formed when Congress reorganizes the Marine Hospital Service and gives it expanded duties

Public Health.Caribbean.
==1912 > The Institute for Tropical Medicine is established in Puerto Rico

Research.United States.
==1912 > Herrick first describes heart disease resulting from hardening of the arteries
==1912 > McCollum and Davis discover what will later be called vitamin A (or Osborne and Mendel in 1913)

==1912 > Tuffier successfully operates on the aortic valve

==1912 > Phenobarbital is introduced, and is found to effective against epileptic seizures

==1912 > ~British aviator Desoutter makes the first aluminum prosthesis to replace his leg, lost in an air crash

United States.
==1912 > In a virtuoso performance, undertaker Crandall successfully restores the facial features of a corpse whose head had been crushed between two trains

==1912 > Alfred Adler writes The Nervous Character

==1912 > Wertheimer publishes the paper that becomes the basis of Gestalt psychology

==1912 > Jung publishes The Psychology of the Unconscious, and begins to break  with Freud


Public Health.Britain.
==Jan.15 > British National Health Insurance begins dispensing health care

Psychology.United States.
==Mar.--- > John Watson publishes Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It in Psychological Review: the origins of behaviorism

Public Health.United States.
==1913 > The US Army becomes the world’s first military force to inoculate its personnel against typhoid

Public Health.Britain.
==1913 > Britain approves typhoid vaccinations for troops sent overseas - ~typhoid fatalities are nearly eliminated

Research.United States.
==1913 > The American Society for the Control of Cancer (later renamed the American Cancer Society) is established with aid from John D. Rockefeller, Jr. - one of the first examples of first ‘direct aid’ for solving health problems
==1913 > Coolidge demonstrates the first practical x-ray tube

Public Health.United States.
==1913 > The New York Public Health Law mandates sweeping reforms in the state Health Department - ~ it becomes the basis for most state public health laws in America

==1913 > Behring introduces a diphtheria vaccine, and Bela Schick perfects a diagnostic test for diphtheria

==1913 > Anichkov links arteriosclerosis with cholesterol and animal fats

Public Health.Central Africa.
==1913 > Albert Schweitzer establishes a hospital at Lambaréné in Gabon - ~it is abandoned during World War One when he is interned by the French

Public Health.Afghanistan.
==1913 > Habibullah establishes the first state hospital in Afghanistan, in Kabul

==1913 > A British Royal Commission calls for reform in medical education

==1913 > China legalizes autopsies

==1913 > The London Society of Psychoanalysis is established
==1913 > The British Mental Deficiency Act increases the government’s power to isolate ‘defectives’


Research.United States.
==Apr.10 > Alexis Carrel performs the first successful heart surgery, on a dog

==Apr.20 > Jung resigns as president of the psychiatrists' association - his breach with Freud has become irrevocable

Public Health.Britain.
==1914 > Manchester opens the first modern sewage plant, using bacteria to treat sludge

Research.United States.
==1914 > Goldberger identifies pellagra as a dietary deficiency
==1914 > Kendall isolates thyroxin, the active substance produced by the thyroid

==1914 > Henry Dale discovers the action of acetylcholine

Psychology.United States.
==1914 > The early behaviorist Watson proposes the use of animals in psychology experiments


Medicine: Introduction      //    (1) Medicine: 1904-1908