Serb officer, 1912

.
(2) The Balkan Wars and their aftermath, 1912-June 1914
January-July 1912

Balkans.Russia.Austria-Hungary.
==Jan.29 > Bosnian Governor Potiorek reports widespread rumors of imminent Russian-backed revolts throughout the Balkans

Balkans.Italy.Austria-Hungary.
==Jan-Feb. > Austria warns Italy against military actions on the Aegean or Balkan coasts

Balkans.Germany.
==Feb.02 > Spahn, the leader of the German Catholic Center Party, accurately predicts to the Reichstag that an Austrian attack on Serbia will draw in Russia and will lead to a general European war

Bulgaria.Balkans.
==Feb.02-05 > Bulgarian Prince Boris’ coming-of-age celebrations are held in Sofia - the Balkan states make a strong show of unity

Balkans.Ottoman Empire.Russia.France.
==Feb.15 > Sazonov queries France how they would respond in the event of a Balkan- Ottoman war

Serbia.Austria-Hungary.
==Feb.--- > The Austro-Hungarian War Ministry reports that Serbian ‘Black Hand’ terrorists may attempt to assassinate members of the Hapsburg imperial family

Bulgaria.Serbia.Macedonia.
==Mar.13 > A secret Serbian-Bulgarian alliance is brokered by Russia - Macedonia is to be partitioned - Bulgaria redirects the alliance against the Turks instead of against Austria, with a secret clause on a possible war

Ottoman Empire.Russia.
==Apr.18-May.04 > The Turks close the Straits in response to an Italian naval attack - Russian commerce suffers

Italy.Ottoman Empire.
==Apr.24-May.20 > Italy occupies Rhodes and the Dodecanese Islands in the Aegean

Croatia.Serbia.
==Apr.--- > 176 nationalist students from Zagreb visit Belgrade, to great acclaim - some are recruited into the Serbian ‘Black Hand’ terrorist group

Bulgaria.Serbia.
==May.12 > Secret Serbian-Bulgarian military convention

Albania.Ottoman Empire.
==late.May > The Albanian revolt against the Turks is renewed

Bulgaria.Greece.
==May.29 > A Greek-Bulgarian alliance against the Turks completes the formation of the Balkan League


August 1912

Macedonia.Balkans.
==start.Aug > The Turks massacre 150 Christians at Kochara (or Kochane) in Macedonia - war fever erupts in the Balkan states

Balkans Russia.France.
==Aug.09-11 > Poincaré visits Russia - he is shocked to learn of the Serbian-Bulgarian alliance, exclaiming  “This is an agreement for war,” and warns that France will not get involved in a purely Balkan war unless Germany intervenes

Balkans.Austria-Hungary.
==Aug.13 > Berchtold urges the powers to enforce reforms on the Turks in order to stabilize the Balkans - the powers show little interest

Macedonia.Bulgaria.
==Aug.14 > Bulgaria demands that the Turks grant autonomy to Macedonia

Montenegro.Serbia.
==mid.Aug to Sep > The Serbs and the Montenegrins stage border incidents against the Ottoman forces and smuggle weapons to the Albanian rebels in Kosovo

Albania.Ottoman Empire.
==Aug.18 > The Turks unofficially accept nearly all of the Albanian terms


September 1912

Balkans.France.
==Sep.02 > The French high command reports that the Entente stands an excellent chance of victory in a general war if Serbia diverts Austrian forces - increased French interest in the Balkans

Albania.Ottoman Empire.
==Sep.04 > The Albanian revolt ends as the Turks officially agree to Albanian terms

Croatia.Austria-Hungary.
==Sep.15 > The nationalist ‘Croatian Alliance’ is established in Kansas City - it is soon plotting the assassinations of Austro-Hungarian officials in Croatia

Greece.Bulgaria.
==Sep.22 > Greek-Bulgarian military convention

Montenegro.Bulgaria.
==Sep.27 > A Montenegrin-Bulgarian alliance is concluded against the Turks

Greece.Europe.
==Sep.29 > British and French forces pacify unrest on Samos in the Aegean

Balkans.Ottoman Empire.
==Sep.30 > The Balkan states mobilize against the Turks


October 1912

Balkans.Ottoman Empire.
==Oct.01 > The Ottoman Empire mobilizes
==Oct.02 > The Balkan states issue an ultimatum demanding reform in Macedonia
==Oct.06 > A Serbian-Montenegrin alliance is made against the Turks, specifying that the war is to start within the month

Balkans.Austria-Hungary.
==early.Oct > The Austro-Hungarian Joint Council hastily approves an arms buildup in the face of the imminent Balkan war

Balkans.Ottoman Empire.Europe.
==Oct.04 > The powers accept a French proposal to oppose any territorial changes in the Ottoman Empire - too late
==Oct.08 > Acting for all the powers, Russia and Austria warn the Balkan League against attacking the Turks - too late

First Balkan War.
==Oct.08 > Montenegro declares war on the Ottoman Empire and invades northern Albania and Novibazar - THE FIRST BALKAN WAR to Jun 1913

First Balkan War.Europe.
==Oct.10 > Germany urges Austria to seize Sanjak before the Serbs do - Austria hesitates
==Oct.12 > The Turks reject the powers’ demands for reforms in Macedonia

Balkans.Germany.
==Oct.13 > At a meeting of government and military leaders at Hubertusstock, the Kaiser proposes further army expansion in view of Austria-Hungary’s need to concentrate against the newly powerful Balkan states

Ottoman Empire.Italy.
==Oct.15 > The secret Italian-Ottoman Treaty of Ouchy: the Turks cede Libya - the Italian pledge to evacuate the Dodecanese Islands is not fulfilled, although the islanders are assured the occupation is temporary
==Oct.18 > The public Italian-Ottoman Treaty of Lausanne formally ends the Tripolitanian War, though fighting continues in Libya

First Balkan War.
==Oct.16 > Serbian forces invade Kosovo, conquering the region by Nov.04
==Oct.17-18 > Serbia, Bulgaria, and Greece go to war with the Turks - Greece proclaims the annexation of Crete
==Oct.17-20 > Balkan armies invade European Turkey
==late.Oct > The Balkan League inflicts a series of devastating defeats on the Turks - the Serbs besiege Scutari and overrun northern Albania by Nov.10; the Bulgarians besiege Adrianople and advance on Constantinople
==Oct.31 > Russia frantically urges Bulgaria to halt its advance on Constantinople, and asks Britain and France to pressure Sofia - on Nov.03-05, Russia warns that it will attack if Bulgaria takes Constantinople


November 1912

First Balkan War.
==Nov.03 > The Turks ask the powers to intervene to end the Balkan War

Serbia.Austria-Hungary.Germany.
==Nov.04 > Austria-Hungary seeks German backing in restricting Serbia and establishing hegemony over the Balkans

First Balkan War.
==Nov.05 > The Serbs crush the Turks at the battle of Monastir and gain control of Macedonia
==Nov.06 > Ottoman Vizier Kamil urges the powers to send their fleets to protect the Straits against the Bulgarians
==Nov.08 > The Greeks take Salonika, a few hours before Bulgarian forces arrive - tensions rise between the allies

Serbia.Austria-Hungary.Russia.
==Nov.09 > Russia refuses to back the Serbs over Albania
==mid.Nov > Austria-Hungary begins to mass troops on the Russian and Serbian frontiers

First Balkan War.
==Nov.17-18 > A determined Bulgarian attack on the Chatalja Lines near Constantinople is repelled at very heavy cost

Albania.Ottoman Empire.
==Nov.20 > The Turks grant autonomy to Albania - too late

First Balkan War.
==Nov.21 > The Turks reject the Balkan League’s peace terms

Serbia.Austria-Hungary.Germany.
==Nov.22 > The Kaiser tells Franz Ferdinand that Germany will fully back an Austro- Hungarian attack on Serbia

Albania.Serbia.Austria-Hungary.
==Nov.24 > Austria-Hungary supports an independent Albania to block Serbian access to the Mediterranean - Russia and France back the Serbs; Italy and Germany back Austria - the Albanian crisis to Dec.03 - both Austria-Hungary and Russia begin to mobilize

Albania.
==Nov.28 > Albania proclaims independence and neutrality at Valona (Vlora)

Romania.Austria-Hungary.
==end.Nov > Austrian Chief of Staff Conrad visits Romania: renewed plans for an Austro-Romanian deployment against Russia in the event of a general war


December 1912

First Balkan War.
==Dec.03 > Ottoman armistice with the Balkan states - not adhered to by Greece

Serbia.Austria-Hungary.Germany.
==Dec.08 > The ‘Kriegsrat’ (war council): the German Kaiser hopes for an Austrian attack on Serbia that will provoke a general war
==Dec.14 > Conrad warns Franz Ferdinand that a Serbian unification of the south Slavs would reduce Austria-Hungary to a minor power

First Balkan War.
==Dec.17-Jan.13.1913 > The London Peace Conferences (one attended by of the powers’ ambassadors, another by the Balkan States), mediated by British Foreign Secretary Grey - the Turks resist the demands of the Balkan States

Serbia.Austria-Hungary.
==Dec.17 > The ‘Consular Affair’ ends: a Serbian-Austrian crisis over the actions of the Austrian consul at Prizren is defused when Austria announces that the consul is safe

Albania.Europe.
==Dec.20 > The London Conference of Ambassadors accept the principle of Albanian autonomy, but not full independence

Bulgaria.Romania.Austria-Hungary.
==Dec to Jan.1913 > Unsuccessful Romanian-Bulgarian talks on compensation for Romania - Austria-Hungary fails to support its Romanian ally

Romania.Russia.
==Dec.--- > Russian overtures to Romania - King Carol is named an honorary Russian Field Marshal

Ottoman Empire.Germany.
==Dec.--- > German hopes for an alliance with the Turks


January 1913

First Balkan War.
==Jan.22 > After stalling for weeks, the Turks agree to the demands of the Balkan states, and briefly consent to the cession of Adrianople
==Jan.23 > Young Turk hardliners seize control of the government in Constantinople, and immediately adopt a tough line against the Balkan states, soon breaking up the peace conference

Serbia.Europe.
==end.Jan > The British ambassador in Vienna fears that Serbia will be the cause of a European war

Balkans.
==Jan.--- > Bulgaria rejects a Serbian request for re-defining Macedonia’s frontiers; relations begin to deteriorate - Greece and Serbia discuss an alliance against Bulgaria


February 1913

First Balkan War.
==Feb.03 > The First Balkan War resumes

Romania.Austria-Hungary.
==Feb.05 > The weak Romanian alliance with Austria is renewed for seven years, despite the rising hostility of the Romanian public

Serbia.Austria-Hungary.
==Feb.10 > Franz Ferdinand tells Conrad “I do not want from Serbia a single plum tree, a single sheep” - ~Austrian attempts to conciliate Serbia


March 1913

First Balkan War.
==Mar.02 > The Turks unsuccessfully seek peace
==Mar.06 > Greek forces storm Yanina (Janina or Ioannina) in Epirus, taking 30,000 Turkish prisoners and 200 guns - the Greeks soon transfer most of their army to Macedonia
==Mar.14 > The Balkan states accept the mediation of the European powers

Ottoman Empire.Germany.
==mid Mar. > ~Germany decides to send a military mission to the Ottoman Empire

Albania.Greece.Serbia.Montenegro.
==Mar.15-21 > The Greeks take Gjirokastër and Tepelenë in south Albania, completing their conquest of disputed ‘North Epirus’
==Mar.16 > The Balkan League demands Scutari in north Albania as a precondition of peace
==Mar.22 > The London Peace Conference awards Scutari to Albania, compensating Serbia with Kosovo and Debar and Montenegro with Peæ - a third of the Albanians are placed under Serbian or Montenegrin rule

First Balkan War.
==Mar.26 > The Bulgarians take Adrianople after tough fighting: the allies loose 9,500 troops, and capture 60,000 Turks - fierce reign of terror in the city - great enthusiasm in Bulgaria and Russia - the siege has involved the first extensive military use of barbed-wire
==Mar.31 > The Turks accept the powers’ peace proposals

Serbia.Austria-Hungary.
==Mar.--- > Austria (backed by Italy) refuses to allow Serbia to establish herself on the Adriatic coast


April 1913

Albania.Montenegro.
==Apr.10 > The powers blockade the Montenegrin/Albanian coast to pressure Montenegro to end the siege of Scutari

Macedonia.Serbia.Bulgaria.
==mid April > The Serbs openly abandon the agreement to partition Macedonia with Bulgaria - ~Bulgarian schools and religious services are suppressed in Macedonia

Ottoman Empire.Albania.Montenegro.
==Apr.22 > Toptani surrenders Scutari (Iskroda or Shkodër) to the Montenegrins in return for their support in his attempt to control Albania - the Turks are entirely driven from Europe except for the environs of Constantinople

Albania.
==late April to early May > Toptani establishes himself in Serbian-occupied Tirana and Durazzo and forms a separate Albanian government in opposition to Kemal’s Valona government

Albania.Montenegro.Austria-Hungary.
==Apr.29 > Austria issues an ultimatum to Montenegro to evacuate Scutari by May.01

Macedonia.Serbia.Bulgaria.Russia.
==Apr.--- > Rus agrees to Bulgarian requests to mediate the Macedonian dispute, but clearly sides with the Serbs


May 1913

Serbia.Greece.Bulgaria.
==May.05 > Secret Greek-Serbian agreement directed against Bulgaria, with a preliminary military convention and plans to partition Macedonia - ~small-scale Greek and Serbian clashes with the Bulgarians - ~the powers are increasingly hostile to Bulgaria

Romania.Europe.
==May.07 > The St. Petersburg Conference of the powers’ ambassadors attempts to settle the Romanian-Bulgarian dispute; Romania is dissatisfied with the award of Silistria

Albania.Montenegro.Europe.
==May.14 > Montenegro evacuates Scutari - the European powers establish international control in the city

Albania.
==mid May > Kemal urges the powers to recognize Albanian independence, in the hopes of undermining Topotani’s threat to the the Valona Albanian government

First Balkan War.
==May.20 > The London Peace Conference resumes talks on resolving the Balkan conflict
==May.30 > The Treaty of London ends the first Balkan War: the Turks are compelled to cede Crete and all Turkish Europe west of the Enos-Midia line

Romania.Austria-Hungary.
==late May to Jun > Sharpening Romanian alienation from Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary.
==May.--- > Austria annexes Ada-Kaleh Island in the Danube from the Turks - the final territorial acquisition by the Hapsburgs

Ottoman Empire.Germany.
==May.--- > The Turks request a German mission to reorganize the Ottoman army


June 1913

Serbia.Greece.Bulgaria.
==Jun.01 > Conclusion of a secret Serbian-Greek alliance and military protocol directed against Bulgaria

Serbia.Bulgaria.Russia.
==Jun.08 > A personal message from Czar Nicholas urges Serbia and Bulgaria to submit their disputes to Russian arbitration

Serbia.Greece.Bulgaria.
==mid Jun > Bulgaria is aware of secret the Serbian-Greek plans to partition Macedonia

Serbia.Bulgaria.Russia.
==Jun.19 > Russia demands that Serbia accept the Czar’s arbitration of their dispute with Bulgaria - the Serbian response is vague
==Jun.22 > Bulgaria makes the acceptance of Russian mediation conditional - Russia angrily repudiates its Bulgarian alliance

Serbia.Greece.Bulgaria.
==Jun.22 > The Bulgarian Army commander Savoff urges a quick attack on Serbia and Greece, confident of an easy victory

Greece.Germany.
==Jun.23 > The German ambassador in Athens reports that King Constantine is ready to override his pro-Entente Prime Minister Venizelos and ally with Germany - Berlin is wary

Bulgaria.Austria-Hungary.
==Jun.26 > Bulgarian defensive Treaty with Austria

Montenegro.
==Jun.27 > Montenegro announces that it will side with Serbia in the event of a Serbian-Bulgarian war

Romania.Bulgaria.
==Jun.28 > Romania warns Bulgaria that it will not remain neutral in a new Balkan war

Balkans.Germany.
==Jun.28 > German Foreign Minister Jagow considers a war between the Balkan states to be “desirable”

Second Balkan War.
==Jun.28-29 > Tsar Ferdinand orders the Bulgarian army to attack without informing his cabinet - his generals are instructed to ignore any halt orders
==Jun.29-30 > Bulgaria attacks Greek and Serbian forces in Macedonia [night] - Second Balkan War to Aug

Ottoman Empire.Europe.
==Jun.--- > Turkish overtures to Britain for an alliance are rebuffed - ~the powers effectively establish economic spheres of influence in the Asiatic Ottoman Empire


July 1913

Second Balkan War.
==Jul.02 > The Serbs counterattack and gain the initiative, breaking the Bulgarian lines and pushing northeastwards
==Jul.03 > Romania mobilizes - public enthusiasm
==Jul.03-04 > Greek forces push back the Bulgarians
==Jul.05 > Greece formally declares war on Bulgaria
==Jul.06 > Serbia formally declares war on Bulgaria
==Jul.06 > German Chancellor Bethmann firmly warns Austrian Foreign Minister Berchtold against moving on Serbia
==Jul.10 > Romania declares war on Bulgaria and immediately crosses the Danube with 150,000 men, meeting no Bulgarian resistance
==Jul.12 > The Ottoman Empire declares war on Bulgaria, and advances into Thrace
==Jul.13 > Bulgaria sues for peace
==Jul.17 > Bulgarian Prime Minister Daneff resigns - a British correspondent writes of Bulgaria as enduring “calamity upon calamity”
==Jul.22 > The Turks reoccupy Adrianople and eastern Thrace without meeting Bulgarian resistance
==Jul.22 > Romania agrees to an armistice with Bulgaria

Bulgaria.Austria-Hungary.Russia.
==Jul.22 > Bulgarian overtures to Austria-Hungary - Bulgaria ends its alignment toward Russia and attempts an alliance with the Central Powers to 1914

Albania.Europe.
==Jul.29 > The powers guarantee an independent, neutral Albania under a constitutional monarch, but refuse to recognize the Valona provisional government - Albanian political struggles

Ottoman Empire.Britain.
==Jul.29 > A British-Ottoman pact sets spheres of influence and strengthens British security in the Persian Gulf - ~British Foreign Secretary Grey says: “The only policy to which we can become a party is one directed to avoid the collapse and partition of Asiatic Turkey.”

Second Balkan War.
==Jul.30-Aug.10 > A Balkan peace conference is held in Bucharest - on Jul.31, an armistice is signed


August 1913

Second Balkan War.
==Aug.10 > The Treaty of Bucharest ends the Second Balkan War: Bulgaria yields Adrianople to the Turks, south Dobrudja to Romania, but gains an Aegean outlet - Greece and Serbia partition Macedonia - boundaries in the east Balkans are stabilized through the Twentieth Century - the Serbian victory is a severe setback for Austria - major German involvement in the Balkans has begun

Albania.Europe.
==Aug.11 > The London Conference awards Koritsa (Korcë) to Albania

Serbia.Austria-Hungary.
==Aug.13 > Vienna informs Germany and Italy that she plans to take “defensive” action against Serbia, but is restrained by her allies


September 1913

Albania.Europe.
==Sep.01-Nov.30 > The International Control Commission investigates the disputed southern Albanian border

Balkans.Russia.
==Sep.10 > Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov says of the Balkan states: “They have escaped me.” - ~the Balkan states achieve true independence

Bosnia.Austria-Hungary.
==mid.Sep > Franz Ferdinand plans to inspect troops in Bosnia in 1914

Albania.Serbia.Austria-Hungary.
==Sep.23 > Serbia re-invades Albania, angering Austria
==Sep.26 to early Oct > Albanian revolts against the Serbs spread rapidly - the Albanians take Dibra (Debar)

Bulgaria.Ottoman Empire.
==Sep.29 > The Treaty of Constantinople: Bulgaria confirms the return of Adrianople to the Turks - ~ Ottoman-Bulgarian talks on a defensive alliance to WWI


October 1913

Albania.Serbia.Austria-Hungary.
==early to mid Oct > The Serbs launch a counteroffensive against the revolt in Kosovo and north Albania - massacres of Albanian villages around Dibra in west Macedonia, to push back the ethnic frontier - the Serbian proxy Toptani demands the dissolution of Kemal’s provisional government in Valona
==Oct.13 > The Austro-Hungarian ministers’ conference unanimously decides on tough stance against the Serbs
==Oct.14 > Austrian Foreign Minister Berchtold makes an “amicable request” that Serbia withdraw her troops from northern Albania
==Oct.15 > Berchtold receives German assurances of support against Serbia
==Oct.18 > An Austrian ultimatum demands that Serbia withdraw from northern Albania within a week - Austria is opposed by all the powers except Germany
==Oct.21 > Serbian forces begin to evacuate north Albania
==Oct.25 > Serbia announces its withdrawal from northern Albania in compliance with Austro-Hungarian demands

Romania.Austria-Hungary.
==Oct.27-Feb 20 > Under German pressure, Hungarian Prime Minister Tisza holds unsuccessful talks with the Romanian National Party in an attempt to improve relations with Romania

Albania.Greece.Austria-Hungary.
==Oct.30 > Austria-Hungary issues an ultimatum to Greece to evacuate southern Albania

Serbia.Austria-Hungary.
==Oct.--- > The Austrian Military Attaché in Belgrade warns that the Serbian government is under rising pressure from the ultra-nationalist officers in the secret ‘Black Hand’ group

Balkans.Germany.Austria-Hungary.
==Oct.--- > The Konopischt Conference between the Kaiser and Franz Ferdinand on the Balkans


November 1913

Bulgaria.Austria-Hungary.
==Nov.06 > Austria coolly receives diplomatic overtures from Bulgaria

Ottoman Empire.Germany.Russia.
==Nov.06 > It becomes publicly known that Germany plans to send a military mission to the Turks
==Nov.10 > Russia is alarmed by the German pact with the Turkish Army

Greece.Ottoman Empire.
==Nov.14 > Greek-Turkish peace treaty: Greece obtains Crete and the Aegean Islands except Tenedos, Imbros, and the Dodecanese

Romania.Germany.
==Nov.--- > Romanian War Minister Filipescu proposes that Transylvania be transferred to Romania in return for Romania joining a German-dominated central European federation

Serbia.Austria-Hungary.
==Nov.--- > Berchtold concludes that war with Serbia is inevitable, and will destroy either Serbia or Austria-Hungary

Albania.Europe.
==late 1913 > The London Conference appoints German Prince William of Wied as the ruler of Albania, despite the fact that he knows nothing of the country


December 1913

Serbia.Austria-Hungary.
==Dec.03 > A Serbian journal in Chicago editorializes on Franz Ferdinand’s proposed visit to Sarajevo in 1914: “Take holy vengeance!  Death to the Hapsburg dynasty!”

Ottoman Empire.Germany.Russia.
==Dec.03 > The Czar visits the Kaiser, approves the German military mission to the Turks
==Dec.04 > The Sultan makes the surprise announcement that German officer Liman will command the Constantinople garrison
==Dec.09 > The Kaiser sees off the German Liman von Sanders military mission to the Turks, tells them that their goal is the buildup of Turkish military power against Russia, and German dominance of Ottoman military and foreign policy

Romania.Austria-Hungary.
==Dec.12 > Pro-German King Carol admits to Austria that he can’t guarantee that Romania will fulfill her secret treaty with Austria since Romanian public opinion inclines toward Russia

Albania.Greece.Britain.
==Dec.13 > Grey proposes that Greece and Albania partition southern Albania

Ottoman Empire.Germany.Britain.France.
==Dec.13 > Britain and France oppose the German-Ottoman military convention
==Dec.14 > The Liman von Sanders mission arrives in Constantinople - Liman commands the Turkish First Army in the capital

Albania.Greece.Europe.
==Dec.19 > The Protocol of Florence: the International Control Commission establishes the Albanian southern border - the Koritsa and Argyrokastron districts are awarded to Albania

Greece.Serbia.Austria-Hungary.
==Dec.--- > Austria-Hungary considers selling its share in the Balkan railroads to Greece and Serbia - German-Austrian friction

Greece.France.
==Dec.--- > Greece is compelled to take a French loan despite its ties to Germany

Greece.Romania.Serbia.
==Dec.--- > A Greek-Romanian-Serbian pact is concluded, directed against Austria-Hungary and Germany


January 1914

Ottoman Empire.Germany.Russia.
==Jan.05 > Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov urges Britain and France to join him in directly confronting Germany over the Liman von Sanders affair
==Jan.13 > An Imperial Russian Council discusses war with Germany over the Liman von Sanders affair
==Jan.15 > Under Russian pressure, Liman von Sanders is promoted by the Turks to Field Marshal and removed from the command of the Constantinople garrison - the Russo- German crisis eases

Ottoman Empire.Austria-Hungary.
==end of Jan > Enraged at Turkish involvement in the Grebeneja affair in Albania, Austria demands the resignation of the CUP leaders - the Turks brazen it out

Greece.Austria-Hungary.
==Jan.30 > Greek Prime Minister Venizelos tells Berchtold that Greece will remain neutral in event of a general war

Serbia.France.
==Jan.--- > Serbia receives a 250 million franc loan from Fr


February 1914

Serbia.Russia.
==Feb.02 > The Serbian Prime Minister Pasic meets with the Czar in St. Petersburg, and is told “For Serbia, we shall do everything.”

Balkans.Ottoman Empire.
==Feb.09 > The Austrian ambassador reports on Turkish plans to re-establish themselves in the Balkans

Albania.Greece.Europe.
==Feb.13 > The powers recognize Greek sovereignty over the islands of the Aegean, except Turkish-ruled Imbros and Tenedos, and the Italian-controlled Dodecanese - the powers demand that Greece evacuate south Albania in March

Ottoman Empire.France.Germany.
==Feb.15 > French-German agreement on Anatolian railroads

Ottoman Empire.Russia.
==Feb.21 > A secret Russian government conference decides that it would be impossible for Russia to seize Constantinople without provoking a general war

Albania.Greece.Europe.
==Feb.28 > In southern Albania, local Greeks proclaim the Republic of Northern Epirus, in defiance of the International Control Commission

Balkans.
==Feb.--- > Romania assures Serbia and Greece “she would in no case tolerate an attack on the status quo” by Bulgaria


March 1914

Albania.Greece.Europe.
==Mar.07 > William of Wied arrives in Durazzo, and is installed as the ruler of Albania with Austrian support
==Mar.08 > Austria and Italy demand that Greece evacuate southern Albania
==Mar.10 > Talks between Prince William’s Albanian regime and Greek separatists in the south - the Greeks reject concessions

Romania.Austria-Hungary.
==Mar.11 > The Austrian ambassador in Bucharest tells Vienna that the secret Austrian- Romanian alliance “is a worthless scrap of paper” that Romania won’t observe

Serbia.Ottoman Empire.
==Mar.14 > Turkish-Serbian peace treaty

Balkans.Europe.
==Mar.15 > In a memo to Franz Joseph, Hungarian Premier Tisza predicts that France and Russia will start a world war when they’ve secured dominance of the Balkans

Ottoman Empire.Germany.Britain.
==Mar.19 > Britain and Germany reach an accord on forming a consortium with Turkish Petroleum to seek oil rights in Mesopotamia

Romania.Russia.
==Mar.27 > Romanian Crown Prince Ferdinand visits St. Petersburg - improving Romanian-Russian relations

Ottoman Empire.Germany.
==Mar.--- > Germany and the Turks formulate plans to coordinate their rail systems in the event of war


April 1914

Albania.Greece.
==Apr.27 > The Greeks evacuate south Albania

Serbia.Austria-Hungary.
==Apr.--- > Serbia officially commemorates the 250th anniversary of the 1667 Croat revolt against the Hapsburgs - Austria is not amused

Romania.Austria-Hungary.France.
==spring > Károlyi, leader of the Hungarian nationalist Independent Party, visits Paris in an attempt to enlist French aid against German support of Romania


May 1914

Albania.Greece.Europe.
==May.17 > The Protocol of Corfu, mediated and guaranteed by the ICC: an autonomous ‘Northern Epirus’ (south Albania) is to be ruled by local Greeks under nominal Albanian sovereignty

Greece.Ottoman Empire.
==May.25 > Greece and the Ottoman Empire agree to a population exchange of Turks in Macedonia and Greeks in Smyrna and Thrace - the Turks immediately launch persecutions against the Greeks

Ottoman Empire.Russia.
==late May > Turkish leader Talat visits the Czar at Livadia on the Black Sea - the attempt to reach a Russian-Ottoman accord is put off by Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov

Serbia.Austria-Hungary.
==May.29 > Serb students fail in an assassination attempt on Governor of Croatia


June 1914

Serbia.Austria-Hungary.
==Jun.05 > The Serbian government issues a veiled warning to Austria of a possible assassination plot against Franz Ferdinand when he visits Bosnia - Austria fails to act

Romania.Austria-Hungary.
==Jun.12-14 > The Kaiser and Franz Ferdinand meet at Konopischt and tour the Archduke’s rose gardens - Franz Ferdinand denounces Hungary’s anti-Romanian policies

Greece.Ottoman Empire.
==Jun.12 > Greek ultimatum to the Turks demanding the cessation of persecution of the Greeks
==Jun.13 > Greece annexes Chios and Lesbos (Mytilene) - ~the threat of war between Greece and the Turks is averted by Ottoman conciliation and pressure from the powers
==mid Jun > The Turks call for an international conference to settle Greek-Ottoman disputes in Albania and the Aegean
==Jun.--- > Greece buys two old American battleships to counter the Turks - ~an Aegean naval race is underway

Romania.Russia.
==Jun.14 > The Czar and Sazonov visit Romania, to popular acclaim - Romania grows closer to the Entente

Ottoman Empire.Germany.Britain.
==Jun.15 > Anglo-German accord on the Persian Gulf region, including the Baghdad railroad: favorable to Germany

Balkans.Austria-Hungary.Germany.
==Jun.24 > In a major memo on Balkan policy, Austria proposes to Germany the abandonment of Romania and the formation of an Ottoman-Bulgarian alliance - Germany urges an Austrian rapprochement with the Serbs

Romania.Russia.
==Jun.24 > Russian Foreign Minister Sazonov writes the Czar that in the event of war Romania will ally with the strongest side

Albania.Austria-Hungary.
==Jun.27 > Austrian threats against Italian activity in Albania

Bosnia.Serbia.Austria-Hungary.
==Jun.28 > THE ASSASSINATION OF FRANZ FERDINAND and his wife by Princip in Sarajevo [1034.AM]

Ottoman Empire.France.
==Jun.--- > Turkish leader Cemal visits Paris seeking a general alliance with the Triple Entente - he is rebuffed

Serb officer from Hellenic Macedonia
 
 

Introduction   ///   (1)  Rising instability, 1903-1911

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