Jules Cambon,
French Ambassador to Germany


Albert - King of Belgium, 1909-1934.  Vigorous and capable.  Suspicious of Germany.

Crown Prince Alexander of Serbia - Heir to the Serbian throne; Regent, Jun.24.1914-1921.  Sympathetic to Serbian ultra-nationalists

Herbert Henry Asquith - Liberal British Prime Minister, 1908-1916.  A skillful political operator.  Generally supported Foreign Secretary Grey during the crisis.

Louis Battenberg - British First Sea Lord, 1912-Oct.1914.

Klaus von Below-Saleski - German Ambassador to Belgium.

Count Alexander Benckendorff - Russian Ambassador to Britain, 1903-1917.

Count Leopold von Berchtold - Austrian Foreign Minister, 1912-1915.  Chief architect of the crisis.  An urbane and experienced diplomat, but poorly suited for the role of Foreign Minister.  After Franz Ferdinand’s assassination, he became the leading advocate of a very tough line toward Serbia.

Sir Francis Bertie - British Ambassador to France, 1905-1918.

Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg - German Chancellor (Prime Minister), 1909-1917.  Favored reconciliation with Britain, but by 1914 was exhausted and pessimistic.  Failed to effectively oppose the onset of war.

Jean-Baptiste Bienvenu-Martin - French Justice Minister; Acting Foreign Minister July.15-29.1914.

Sir George Buchanan - British Ambassador to Russia, 1910-1918

Sir Maurice de Bunsen - British Ambassador to Austria-Hungary, 1913-Aug.1914

Count Luigi Cadorna - Italian Chief of Staff.

Jules Cambon - French Ambassador to Germany, 1907-Aug.1914.  Highly perceptive and capable.  The younger brother of Paul Cambon.

Paul Cambon - French Ambassador to Britain, 1898-1920.  An experienced, conservative, elderly diplomat of the old school.

Winston Churchill - British First Lord of the Admiralty, 1911-1915.  Though still young, Churchill had ably held several high offices since 1905, and proved to be one of the most alert British leaders during the crisis.

Baron Franz Conrad von Hotzendorf - Austrian Chief of Staff, 1906-1911 and 1912-1916.  Highly aggressive, and enthusiastically in favor of a preventive war against Serbia.

Sir Eyre Crowe - British Assistant Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, 1912-1920.  Strongly anti-German; astute and articulate.

The Czar - see Nicholas II

Clemens von Delbrück - German Interior Minister.

Enver Bey - Turkish War Minister from Jan.1914.  Highly pro-German.  Reckless and ambitious.

Erich von Falkenhayn - Prussian War Minister, 1913-1915.

Ferdinand - Tsar of Bulgaria, 1887-1918, when he was forced to abdicate.

Hans von Flotow - German Ambassador to Italy.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand - heir to the Austrian throne; Inspector General of the Austrian Army from 1913; assassinated with his wife at Sarajevo, June 28, 1914.  Ironically, he favored a conciliatory policy toward Serbia.

Franz Joseph - Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, 1848-1916.  Although 83 years old by the time of the July Crisis, he had more common sense than most of his advisers and was leery of entering into a war.

George V - King of England, 1910-1936.

Baron Giesl von Gieslingen - Austrian Ambassador to Serbia, 1913-Jul.1914

Ivan Goremykin - Russian Prime Minister, 1906 and Feb.1914-1916.

William Goschen - British Ambassador to Germany, 1908-Aug.1914

Sir Edward Grey - British Foreign Secretary, 1905-1916.  Intelligent, but often naïve on foreign affairs. Anti-German; wary of foreign commitments, but more interventionist than most members of the Liberal Party.

Colonel Edward M. House - American special envoy to Europe, May-Jul.1914.  A shrewd and experienced politician.

Count Alexander Hoyos - Austrian Chief Secretary to the Foreign Minister; special envoy to Germany in early July.1914

Alexander Izvolsky - Russian Foreign Minister, 1906-1910; Russian Ambassador to France, 1910-1917.

Gottlieb von Jagow - German Foreign Minister, 1913-1916.  Favored a hard line.  His duplicitous style confused the situation and made Germany appear unreliable.

Jean Jaurès - French Socialist leader, assassinated July.31.1914.  Principled and energetic.  Steadfastly opposed the coming of war.

Joseph Joffre - French Chief of Staff, 1911-1916.

The Kaiser - see Wilhelm II

Prince Karl Max von Lichnowsky - German Ambassador to Britain, 1912-Aug.1914.  Favored improved relations with Britain.  Vigorously opposed the drift to war.

Count Albert von Mensdorff-Pouilly-Dietrichstein - Austrian Ambassador to Britain.

Kajetan Mérey von Kapos-Mére - Austrian Ambassador to Italy.

Adolphe Messimy - French Minister of War.

Helmuth von Moltke the Younger - German Chief of Staff, 1906-Sep.1914.  Intelligent, but ill-suited to his job.  Forcefully supported a preventive war.  He seems to have suffered a mild stroke during the crisis.

Nicholas II - Czar of Russia, 1894-1917, when he was forced to abdicate.  Weak-willed and dim-witted, he did have enough sense to fear the onset of war.

Sir Arthur Nicolson - British Permanent Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs.  Staunchly pro-French and pro-Russian.

Maurice Paléologue - French Ambassador to Russia.  Unstable.  Closely aligned with Poincaré, he encouraged Russia to take a tough stance in 1914, often exceeding his authority.

Nikola Pasic - Radical Serbian Prime Minister, 1912-1918 (and several times earlier).  Tough and able.  Nationalistic, but strongly opposed to Serbian ultra-nationalists.

Raymond Poincaré - French Prime Minister, 1913-1914; President, 1913-1920.  Conservative French nationalist, fiercely anti-German.

Count Friedrich von Pourtalès - German Ambassador to Russia.

Gavrilo Princip - Young Serbian ultra-nationalist from Bosnia; assassinated Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo on Jun.28, 1914.

Antonio di San Giuliano - Italian Foreign Minister, 1910-Oct.1914; died in office.  Cynical, but sharp and highly capable.  Physically ailing in the summer of 1914.

Sergei D. Sazonov - Russian Foreign Minister, 1910-1916.  High-strung and somewhat erratic.  Generally favored a tough response to Austria.

Nikolai N. Schebeko - Russian Ambassador to Austria-Hungary.

Freiherr Wilhelm von Schoen - German Ambassador to France, 1910-Aug.1914

Sergei N. Sverbejev - Russian Ambassador to Germany.

Count Friedrich Szápáry - Austrian Ambassador to Russia, 1913-Aug.1914

Count Nikolaus Szécsen von Terimin - Austrian Ambassador to France.

Count Ladislaus Szögyény-Merich - Austrian Ambassador to Germany, from 1892

Alfred von Tirpitz - German Navy Minister, 1897-1916.  His naval buildup had estranged Britain and contributed to European tensions, but in 1914 he did not favor war.

Count Stephen Tisza - Prime Minister of Hungary, 1903-1905 and 1913-1917.  Experienced Austro-Hungarian politician.  Wary of provoking a war with Serbia.

Count Heinrich Leopold von Tschirschky - German Ambassador to Austria-Hungary, 1907-1914.  Supported a hard-line policy against Serbia.

Eleutherios Venizelos - Prime Minister of Greece.  A very able politician.  Favored the Entente.

Rene Viviani - French Prime Minister, 1913-1915, (heading left coalition governments) and Foreign Minister, 1913-Aug.03.1914.  Nervous, with no great grasp of foreign affairs.  Distrusted by Poincaré.

Wilhelm II - Emperor of Germany, 1888-1918, when he was forced to abdicate.  Intelligent but unbalanced.  He had long pursued an aggressive but extremely erratic foreign policy.  In the July Crisis, he initially favored a tough line, but grew frightened as war approached.


July Crisis Introduction    //    (1) 1904-Jun.1914    //    (2) Jun.28-Jul.22
(3) Jul.23-27     //   (4) Jul.28-31    //    (5) Aug.01-04