Théophile Delcassé

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Two times in the decade before WWI, disputes over Morocco ignited extremely dangerous European crises. 

Germany felt threatened by the loose alignment between France and Britain.  Twice, Berlin came up with the scheme of deliberately provoking a crisis by challenging the growing French influence in Morocco, hoping to humiliate France and force it to break off its association with Britain.  Both times, the plan backfired - ties between France and Britain were strengthened, and Germany was left more isolated than ever.  Although war was narrowly avoided in 1905-1906 and in 1911, both of the Moroccan Crises sharply ratcheted up European tensions and helped bring on the First World War.

Theis timeline deals mainly with international relations.  The Morocco chronology under ‘Nations and Regions’ covers the French conquest of Morocco in more detail.


 
1903

France.Morocco.
==early.Oct > Lyautey arrives to take command of the southwestern Algerian frontier - France begins to adopt an agressive policy toward Morocco 


1904

Germany.Morocco.
==Mar.16 > The Kaiser tells the King of Spain: “We do not want any territorial gains in Morocco”, repudiating Bülow's earlier attempts to interfere in the Moroccan settlement 

Germany.France.Morocco.
==Mar.23 > France informs Germany of the impending Anglo-French accord, and pledges that international trade with Morocco will remain open - publicly, Germany supports the settlement 
==Mar.30 > German Chancellor Bülow, who is secretly angered by the Anglo-French accord, unsuccessfully urges the Kaiser to send warships to Tangiers 

France.Britain.
==Apr.08 > THE ANGLO-FRENCH CONVENTION: within the context of a  general colonial settlement, Britain gives France a free hand in Morocco and France pledges to respect Spanish interests in the region - BRITAIN AND FRANCE BEGIN TO ALIGN; THE START OF ENTENTE CORDIAL 

Germany.France.Spain.
==late.Apr. to Jul. > Bülow quietly attempts to interfere in French-Spanish talks on Morocco

Britain.Morocco.
==Apr.27 > Britain drops any claims to southern Morocco (Western Sahara) on the understanding that much of the region will be ceded to Spain 

United States.Morocco.
The Pedicaris Affair:
==May.18 > The Raisuni, a Berber chieftain, kidnaps the supposed US citizen Pedicaris from Tangiers and demands $70,000 in ransom and extensive political powers 
==May.20 > Six American heavy cruisers and the British battleship HMS Prince of Wales are ordered to Tangiers - the Raisuni is not impressed 
==Jun.22 > The American government sends the dramatic cable “We want Pedicaris alive or Raisuni dead.” (note that it's an election year in the US)
==Jun.25 > Pedicaris is released after the Raisuni’s demands are met - the Raisuni becomes caid of Tangiers 

France.Morocco.
==May.23 > The Sultan of Morocco agrees to French terms for a loan; France quickly gains partial control of customs revenue - ~rising French dominance of Morocco 

Germany.Britain.
==May.31 > Bülow proposes that Britain and Germany jointly back Spain against France in Morocco - the proposal is ignored by Britain

Germany.France.
==Jun.03 > Foreign policy adviser Holstein suggests that Germany force a crisis with France: “Germany must object... to maintain her prestige... If we let our toes be trodden on in Morocco without saying a word we encourage others to do the same elsewhere.” 

France.Spain.Morocco.
==Oct.03 > A Franco-Spanish Moroccan convention, favorable to France, establishes spheres of influence - Moroccan issues are seemingly settled 

Germany.France.Morocco.
==Nov.28 > The German consul in Morocco warns that the French are establishing a protectorate   

France.Morocco.
==Dec.15 > The Taillandier Mission to Fez is instructed to propose ‘reforms’ that would make Morocco a French protectorate, including control of the police and the banking system


January-March 1905

Germany.France.Morocco.
==Jan.--- > A French mission is sent to Fez - Germany is alarmed; Bülow offers German support to the Sultan of Morocco 

Germany.Morocco..
==mid.Feb > A German cruiser is sent to Tangiers: German Moroccan policy is growing more assertive 

France.Morocco.
==Feb.21 > France demands control of the Moroccan army, police and customs 
==Feb.22 > The Sultan defiantly convenes a conference of notables to review the French demands

Germany.United States.
==Feb.24 > Bülow begins futile attempts to enlist Roosevelt’s support over Morocco 

Germany.France.Morocco.
==Mar.10 > Germany sends a note to the Sultan of Morocco implying support against French demands
==Mar.20 > The Kaiser's impending visit to Tangiers is announced - there is immediate opposition in the French and British press (or Mar.19) 
==Mar.26 > Bülow encourages the Kaiser’s visit to Tangiers and urges him to declare German support for Moroccan independence 
==Mar.31 > The Kaiser visits the Sultan of Morocco in Tangiers, in effect denying French claims in the region - THE FIRST MOROCCAN CRISIS to Apr 1906, engineered by Holstein, with the possible intent of provoking a preventive war against France - RECURRENT EUROPEAN CRISES TO 1914 


April 1905

Germany.
==Apr.01 > The German deployment plan (in effect until Apr.01.1906) calls for massing two-thirds of the German Army on the Belgian border, with 36 German Corps to oppose 21 French - no forces are allotted to the Russian front 

Germany.Morocco..
==Apr.01 > Germany announces that the Kaiser's visit to Tangiers was to show his commitment to Moroccan independence   

Germany.United States.
==Apr.03-13 > Germany renews attempts to gain Roosevelt’s support in the growing Moroccan crisis 

Germany.France.Italy.
==early.Apr > In almost threatening notes, both Germany and France demand Italian support in the Moroccan Crisis 

France.Morocco.
==Apr.09 > France warns the Sultan against accepting the German proposals for an international conference on Morocco 

Italy.Germany.
==Apr.12 > Italy declines to back Germany over Morocco, despite German threats to break the Triple Alliance 

France.
==Apr.19 > The French Parliament attacks Foreign Minister Delcassé for not consulting with Germany on Morocco - French public opinion is folding under German pressure - Prime Minister Rouvier temporarily refuses Delcassé’s offer of resignation 

United States.Germany.Britain.
==Apr.20 > Roosevelt makes a half-hearted offer to mediate the Anglo-German differences on Morocco - ~the proposal is dropped when Britain fails to respond 

Britain.France.
==Apr.22-25 > Britain informs France it will strongly oppose any German demands for access to a Moroccan port 

France.Germany.
==Apr.26 > French Prime Minister Rouvier emotionally appeals to the German ambassador, saying that the French people much prefer Germany over Britain, and offering to dump Foreign Minister Delcassé - Delcassé soon learns of the meeting through intercepts - Germany ignores Rouvier's conciliatory overtures through May 

Germany.
==Apr.26 > The semi-official German newspaper Kreuzzeitung hints at war 

France.
==Apr.27 > Panic in the Paris stock exchange 

France.Britain.
==Apr.30 > Anglo-French military conversations


May 1905

Germany.Britain.
==May.01 > The German Ambassador in London warns that if war breaks out, Britain will “go against Germany, even with enthusiasm.” 

Britain.France.
==May.01-05 > Edward VII visits Paris, unsuccessfully encouraging the badly shaken French to take a tough line against Germany 

Germany.Britain.
==May.05 > Bülow writes to Holstein that Britain is trying to provoke a war between France and Germany

Russia.France.
==May.05 > The French Ambassador to St. Petersburg reports that Russia is disinclined to aid France in the Moroccan crisis 

Germany.
==May.06 > Bülow is confident that neither Britain nor Russia will oppose Germany in a war with France

France.Britain.
==May.08 > French Premier Rouvier tells the German Ambassador that he doesn’t expect Britain to militarily back France

United States.Germany.
==May.13 > Roosevelt comments on the Kaiser to a British diplomat: he “...is altogether too jumpy, too volatile in his policies... I should never dream of counting on his friendship for this country.” 

Germany.Morocco.
==May.13 > The German Tattenbach mission arrives in Fez 

Germany.France.
==May.16 > Germany demands that France dismiss Foreign Minister Delcassé 

Britain.France.
==May.17 > British Foreign Secretary Lansdowne sends a note to France supporting full mutual consultation but declining any formal commitment by Britain

Britain.Germany.
==May.22 > Royal Navy commander Admiral Fisher urges an immediate Anglo-French naval attack on Germany

Britain.France.
==May.25 > Lansdowne suggests secret contingency planning to France, but again declines a formal commitment

Germany.France.
==May.27 > The French War Minister estimates that Germany will not be ready for war until June 1906 

Morocco.    
==May.28 > The Sultan of Morocco rejects French proposals for internal reform - with German support, he calls for an international conference 

France.Britain.
==May.30 > Delcassé tells Britain he’s ready for unrestricted talks 


June 1905

Germany.France.
==Jun.04 > Through Italy, Bülow explicitly threatens France with war if French troops intervene in Morocco - the threat is almost certainly a bluff

France.Germany.Britain.
==Jun.06 > French Foreign Minister Delcassé is ousted at German insistence by Prime Minister Rouvier, who becomes Foreign Minister - the end of the immediate threat of war, the high point of German success in the First Moroccan Crisis - Britain is disgusted 

Germany.France.
==Jun.06 > Upon the fall of Delcassé, the Kaiser tells a French general that Germany would on no account fight France over Morocco 

Germany.International.
==Jun.06 > A German circular note invites the powers to a conference on Morocco 

Britain.France.
==Jun.08 > British Prime Minister Balfour informs Edward VII that he no longer regards France as reliable - ~the Anglo-French entente is briefly near collapse 

Germany.France.
==Jun.10 > Germany bluntly warns France not to change Morocco’s status - ~the exasperated French begin to toughen towards Germany

Germany.United States.
==Jun.11 > The Kaiser urges Roosevelt to prevent a British combination with France in a possible war over Morocco

Germany.Spain.
==Jun.11 > Germany demands the dismissal of the Spanish Foreign Minister

France.Germany.
==Jun.21 > A French note (supported by America and Britain) urges a Franco-German accord before any conference on Morocco - the German response is hostile

Germany.United States.
==Jun.28 > The German Ambassador mis-speaks himself and tells an astonished Roosevelt that the Kaiser will accept any American decisions at the Morocco Conference 


July-December 1905

France.Germany.Britain.
==Jul.01-08 > France agrees to a conference on Morocco, only after Germany recognizes a special French role in the region - ~French opposition to Germany and ties to Britain are strengthening 
==Jul.22 > The German ambassador to London again warns that Britain will go to war to keep French friendship and to prevent German hegemony in Europe

Germany.France.
==Jul.25 > Believing the Moroccan Crisis to be over, the Kaiser says “We shall be good friends with the Gauls”

United States.Germany.France.
==Aug.23 > Roosevelt tells his delegate to the Algeciras Conference that he favors France, though he desires good relations with Germany 

France.Spain.
==Sep.01 > A secret Franco-Spanish accord on Morocco ensures that Spain will align with France at the international conference 

Germany.France.
==Sep.28 > After frustrating negotiations, France and Germany agree on the agenda for the Morocco conference, thanks to intervention from the Russian Count Witte

Germany.
==Sep.--- > Probably encouraged by Holstein, the German General Staff still sees war as a real possibility, but it is confident 

France.Britain.
==Oct.15 > Former French Foreign Minister Delcassé tells the newspaper Le Matin that Britain has promised it will land 100,000 men in Schleswig if Germany attacks France - the assertion is strongly denied by Britain
==Nov.18 > The French military attaché reports that British military intervention in Europe is unlikely to be effective

Morocco.International.    
==Dec.01 > The Sultan of Morocco formally asks concerned nations to attend an international conference on Morocco (or Jul.31) 

France.Britain.
==Dec.15 > Unauthorized British-French military talks are held to May.1906 

Germany.Britain.
==Dec.23 > Worried by growing British hostility, Holstein warns that Germany must quickly try to improve relations - he is ignored 

Germany.France.
==Dec.25 > Bülow prefers war to a French diplomatic victory over Morocco, but he neglects military preparations 

France.Britain.
==Dec.28 > The French embassy in London approaches the influential Times military reporter Reppington with questions on British intentions in the event of war - the origins of serious Anglo-French military talks 

France.Russia.
==Dec.--- > The Russian Kokovtsov mission is sent to secure a French loan - France makes any loan dependent on Russian support at the Morocco conference 


January 1906

Germany.
==Jan.01 > In his New Year’s address to his generals, the Kaiser states categorically that Germany will not go to war over Morocco

Britain.Germany.France.
==Jan.03 > Foreign Secretary Grey informs Germany that any British government would help France in a war with Germany - ~Britain begins to suspect that Germany is seeking hegemony, and takes a firmer line in backing France 

France.Britain.
==early.Jan > A semi-official meeting is held between the French military attaché to London and the British Chief of Staff 

Britain.
==Jan.08 > In a meeting with Grey, War Secretary Haldane is alerted to the possibility of British involvement in defending France against a German attack - ~Haldane decides on the main outlines of his British army reforms 

Britain.Germany.France.
==Jan.09 > Grey notes signs of German preparations for war against France in the spring - French apprehension 

Britain.France.
==Jan.10 > Grey is unable to tell France whether Britain would support her if she were attacked, but agrees to unofficially authorize military talks between the two countries

Britain.
==Jan.13 > The Committee for Imperial Defense holds its first discussions on shipping British troops to France in the event of war

International.    
==Jan.16-Apr.07 > The international Algeciras Conference on Morocco 

France.Britain.
==Jan.17 > Secret Anglo-French military staff talks begin on sending a British expeditionary force - the talks are hidden from the British Cabinet until 1911 - ~the British plan for landing in northern Germany is rejected 

Belgium.Britain.
==Jan.18-late.Apr > Anglo-Belgian military staff talks 

Britain.Germany.
==Jan.23 > Edward VII proposes to Germany to mediate the Moroccan crisis

Britain.France.
==Jan.26 > British Prime Minister Campbell-Bannerman approves the Anglo-French staff talks 
==Jan.31 > Grey meets with the French ambassador: he is unable to promise an alliance, and warns that British public opinion might prevent support for France in a war - Grey secretly officially authorizes Anglo-French staff talks on the condition that they don’t commit Britain to enter a war


February 1906

United States.Germany.
==early.Feb > Theodore Roosevelt is growing suspicious of German intentions

Russia.France.
==early.Feb > Russia pledges full support to France at the Algeciras Conference

Germany.Britain.
==Feb.05 > The Kaiser flatly rejects Edward VII's mediation offer on Morocco 

Germany.International.
==mid.Feb > The Algeciras Conference is close to collapse over the stubborn German stand on the issue of the Moroccan police 

Britain.
==Feb.20 > Grey speculates: “If there is war between France and Germany, it will be very difficult for us to keep out of it.”


March-April 1906

Britain.
==Mar.01 > The combined British Atlantic and Mediterranean fleets assemble at Gibraltar, within sight of the Algeciras Conference. 

Germany.International.
==Mar.03 > Germany is isolated at the Algeciras with only Austria and Morocco as allies - Holstein is enraged and wants to threaten war, but he is sent home 

United States.Germany.
==Mar.07 > On the basis of the inadvertent German promise of Jun.28.1905 to accept any American proposals on Morocco, Roosevelt requests that Germany agree to the French position 

Germany.International.
==Mar.08-27 > Germany grudgingly retreats before international pressure at Algeciras 

Britain.France.
==Mar.16 > Britain assures France of its full support at Algeciras 

Germany.United States.
==Mar.19 > Under pressure from Roosevelt, Germany grudgingly accepts the pro-French American ‘compromise’ plan on Morocco 

International.
==Mar.31 > Agreement is reached at the Algeciras Conference 

Germany.
==Apr.06 > The fall of influential German foreign policy adviser Holstein, secretly engineered by Chancellor Bülow 

International.
==Apr.07 > The final Act of Algeciras is signed: the powers recognize a special French role in Morocco - the end of the First Moroccan Crisis - the Anglo-French entente is strengthened, while Anglo-German hostility is entrenched - Germany begins to fear encirclement - ~THE ARMIES OF THE EUROPEAN POWERS BEGIN SERIOUS PREPARATIONS FOR A GENERAL WAR 


May-December 1906

France.Morocco.
==May.27 > The Frenchman Charbonnier is murdered near Tangiers - ~France increases its pressure on the Sultan of Morocco 
==Jun.18 > France forces the Sultan of Morocco to sign the Act of Algeciras 
==Jul.04 > The Sultan of Morocco is compelled to pay compensation for the Charbonnier murder

United States.International.
==Dec.12 > The US Senate approves the Treaty of Algeciras after appending a statement opposing American involvement in European affairs


1907

Germany.France.
==Mar.15 > French Premier Clemenceau tells the German ambassador that Morocco leaves him “completely indifferent” 

France.Morocco.
==Aug.05 > A French warship unexpectedly shells Casablanca - chaos erupts in the city for two weeks - central Morocco is destabilized 

Morocco.
==Aug.16-Aug.1908 > Dynastic civil war in Morocco

France.Morocco.
==Aug.18-Mar.1908 > The French Chaouia Campaign in central Morocco
==Nov.07-late.Dec > The French suppress the Beni Snassen Revolt in northeast Morocco


1908

France.Morocco.
==Apr.17-Sep > The French suppress a large tribal revolt in southeast Morocco

Morocco.
==Aug.19  Hafid defeats Aziz and soon replaces him as Sultan of Morocco

Germany.France.Spain.Morocco.
==Sep.03 > Germany recognizes Hafid as the Sultan of Morocco, causing tense relations with France - ~Spain recognizes Hafid 

France.Germany.
==Sep.25 > The Casablanca Affair: French authorities seize German deserters from the French Foreign Legion while they are being escorted by the German consul - minor French-German crisis 
==Nov.24 > France and Germany agree to submit the ‘Casablanca Affair’ dispute to the Hague Tribunal, ending the crisis 


1909

Germany.France.
==Jan.06 > Germany proposes an agreement on Morocco to France
==Feb.08 > Franco-German accord on Morocco - Germany recognizes a special French interest in Morocco in return for economic concessions (or Feb.09) - a brief thaw between the two powers

Spain.Morocco.
==Jul.09-1923 > Spain is bogged down in the Riff Wars in northeast Morocco  

Germany.France.Morocco.
==1909 > German firms are established to exploit Morocco - France proves to be uncooperative


1910

France.Morocco.
==May.13 > French loan to the Sultan - France secures total financial control of Morocco, gaining complete control of customs revenues and many local taxes

Spain.Morocco.
==Nov.--- > A Spanish treaty with the Sultan of Morocco provides for Spanish rule in the occupied zone around Melilla in northeast Morocco 

Germany.France.
==Nov.--- > A French cruiser visits Agadir in southern Morocco - the German press is infuriated 


January-March 1911

Morocco.
==Mar.12-May.18 > Fez is suddenly besieged by Moroccan tribal rebels

Germany.France.Morocco.
==Mar.13 > German Foreign Minister Kiderlen warns France against taking military action in Morocco


April 1911

France.Morocco.
==Apr.02 > The French consul in Fez begins urging direct French intervention to relieve Fez and to impose a protectorate on Morocco

Germany.France.Morocco.
==Apr.05 > France informs Kiderlen that it intends to occupy Rabat and march on Fez - Kiderlen hints at a need for German compensation 

France.Morocco.
==Apr.23 > The French cabinet approves military intervention in Morocco to relieve Fez

Germany.France.Morocco.
==Apr.28 > France announces that it must occupy Fez - Germany warns that this will abrogate the Act of Algeciras 


May 1911

Germany.Morocco..
==May.03 > Foreign Minister Kiderlen advocates German intervention in Morocco to offset domestic pressure from the left

France.Morocco.
==May.04 > The Sultan requests French intervention in Morocco

France.
==May.21 > An accident at a French air show maims Premier Monis and kills the War Minister, leaving the government in disarray

Germany.France.Morocco.
==May.21 > The French relief force reaches Fez - Germany plans to extract the maximum compensation from French

Germany.Morocco..
==May.30 > The German Foreign Office recommends that Berlin provoke a crisis in south Morocco and occupy the region to protect German citizens… though there are no German citizens in south Morocco 


June 1911

France.Morocco.
==Jun.10 > France takes Meknes, clearly exceeding the Act of Algeciras 

Germany.France.
==Jun.15 > French Foreign Minister Cruppi tells the German ambassador that France is ready for talks on a colonial settlement 

Germany.France.Morocco.
==Jun.20-21 > Kiderlen and the French ambassador conduct talks on Morocco - Kiderlen blatantly demands compensation, saying “bring us back something from Paris” 

Germany.Morocco..
==Jun.21 > German business firms petition for German government protection in south Morocco - after being ordered to do so by the German government
==Jun.26 > At Kiderlen’s insistence, the Kaiser reluctantly agrees to send the gunboat Panther to Agadir in south Morocco


July 1911

Germany.International.
==Jul.01 > The German gunboat Panther arrives off Agadir in southern Morocco - THE SECOND MOROCCAN CRISIS to Nov - ~RISING TEMPO OF INTERNATIONAL CRISES TO WWI 

France.Britain.Germany.
==Jul.01 > The Foreign Ministers of Britain and France both favor sending warships to Agadir in a show of strength against Germany 
==Jul.04 > The British and French governments refuse to consider sending warships to Agadir despite their Foreign Ministers’ advice 

Britain.Germany.
==Jul.04 > Britain warns Germany against unilaterally imposing a Moroccan settlement on France - Germany ignores the warning

Germany.Morocco..
==Jul.04 > After having to make a long journey to get there, an ‘endangered’ German citizen finally arrives in Agadir to be ‘rescued’ by the German Navy 

France.Germany.
==Jul.06 > France decides to hold talks with Germany 
==Jul.08 > France offers Germany compensation in central Africa 
==Jul.09 > Franco-German talks begin - German Foreign Minister Kiderlen refuses to reveal his intentions 

Russia.Germany.
==Jul.10 > Russia notifies Germany that it supports France in the Moroccan Crisis 

Britain.Germany.
==Jul.11 > The British government learns of the heavy demands Germany is making on France - Foreign Secretary Grey urges a tough line against Germany, but the Cabinet balks 

Britain.France.
==Jul.11 > Without authorization, British Ambassador Bertie tells France that Britain won’t allow the German seizure of Agadir 

Germany.France.
==Jul.15 > Kiderlen demands the French Congo in compensation for German interests in Morocco - France is shocked 

Britain.Germany.France.
==Jul.18 > The influential British Foreign Office official Eyre Crowe minutes that German success in the Moroccan Crisis “...will mean definitely the subjugation of France”

Britain.Germany.
==Jul.20 > The London Times prints Germany’s sweeping demands on France - British public opinion grows strongly anti-German

Britain.France.
==Jul.20 > The Dubail-Wilson Agreement: without authorization, an Anglo-French military conference settles the details of military cooperation - British General Wilson pledges a 150,000-man BEF, to be ready for action on the thirteenth day of war 

Britain.Germany.
==Jul.21 > The exasperated, normally pro-German Lloyd George’s Mansion House Speech threatens Germany and strongly supports France - Germany reacts bitterly 
==Jul.21 > The London Times ominously reports that the German High Seas Fleet has sailed and “vanished into the desolate wastes of the North Sea” 
==Jul.21 > British Foreign Secretary Grey reopens with Germany the question of partitioning the Portugese Empire  
==Jul.25 > Tense meeting of British Foreign Secretary Grey and German Ambassador Metternich - Grey warns Churchill that the German fleet could attack at any time; the Royal Navy is put on alert, but it is unprepared, with key personnel on holiday - sharp fears of war between Britain and Germany to Jul.27 

France.Germany.
==Jul.25 > French Prime Minister Caillaux opens secret talks with Germany, without informing his Cabinet 

Britain.Germany.
==Jul.26 > The British Atlantic Fleet is ordered to the English Channel instead of Norway, to be closer to Morocco 
==Jul.27 > Germany turns conciliatory to Britain - Asquith makes a soothing speech in Commons - the sharp Anglo-German crisis is temporarily defused 

France.Germany.
==Jul.28 > French Foreign Minister Selves accuses Premier Caillaux of negotiating behind the government’s back, with evidence from intercepted German messages - ~Caillaux stupidly reveals to Germany that their codes have been broken

International.
==Jul.28 > The Bureau of the socialist Second International fails to act against the Moroccan Crisis, despite years of anti-war rhetoric

Germany.
==Jul.--- > German right-wing and moderate parties are responding enthusiastically to the Moroccan crisis 

Britain.
==Jul.--- > Asquith appoints the energetic Churchill to the Cabinet’s Committee of Imperial Defense

Britain.France.
==summer > Desultory Anglo-French naval talks accomplish little


August 1911

Germany.
==mid.Aug > Kiderlen is loosing control of the popular response to the Moroccan crisis - rising German war fever to early Sep - ~rise of German right-wing militarism 

Germany.France.
==Aug.16 > France and Germany announce that the situation is “grave”
==Aug.18 > Franco-German talks are suspended to Sep.01 

Germany.
==Aug.20 > German Foreign Minister Kiderlen leaves for a ‘holiday’ 

Britain.
==Aug.23 > The Committee for Imperial Defense reviews British war plans: compared to the detailed planning by the Army, the Royal Navy’s plans are ‘puerile’ 

Spain.Morocco.
==Aug.24-May.1912 > The Spanish Riff War revives

Germany.
==Aug.26 > The right-wing German Post writes that war would clarify “our precarious (foreign) political position” as well as “curing...many political and social ills” 
==Aug.27 > Speaking in Hamburg, the Kaiser says that the German fleet must be strengthened to ensure “the place in the sun to which we are entitled” (or Aug.21)

Britain.France.
==Aug.28 > Grey warns French Ambassador Cambon that Britain will demand an international conference if Franco-German talks break down 

Russia.France.
==Aug.29 > Russia is sending ambiguous, contradictory statements on whether it would back France with military force in the event of a war over Morocco 


September-December 1911

France.Germany.
==Sep.01 > Scheduled Franco-German talks are postponed - ~renewed war scare 

Britain.Germany.
==Sep.02 > The Royal Navy is alerted that the German fleet has concentrated at Kiel

Britain.
==Sep.11 > Lloyd George is “quite in favor of war now” 

Germany.France.
==Oct.11 > The preliminary draft of the Moroccan Convention - Kiderlen is compelled to recognize a de facto French protectorate over Morocco
==Oct.22 > Germany is to be compensated for Morocco with territory in the Cameroons in West Africa
==Nov.04 > Treaty of Berlin: the Franco-German accord resolves the Second Moroccan Crisis - Germany receives minor compensation in west central Africa in return for recognizing French control of Morocco - the German military and the right-wing are humiliated - strong revival of French confidence 


1912

France.Morocco.
==Mar.30 > Sultan Hafid reluctantly signs the Treaty of Fez - Morocco becomes a French protectorate: France controls the foreign policy, the finances, the army and the administration of Morocco 
==May.24 > The aggressive Lyautey arrives in Fez as the Resident-General 
==May.25-Jun.01 > The second siege of Fez, by Moroccan tribesmen, is crushed by French forces

Morocco.
==Aug.12 > Sultan Hafid abdicates in favor of his brother and sails for France  

France.Morocco.
==Sep.06-07 > French troops crush the revolt by el Hiba, take Marrakech, and secure southern Morocco

France.Spain.Morocco.
==Nov.27 > A final Franco-Spanish accord demarcates their Moroccan zones, quite unfavorably for Spain - Tangiers is declared an ‘international city’


1913

Spain.Morocco.
==Jun.--- > Berber chieftain El Raisuni revolts in western Spanish Morocco


1914

France.Morocco.
==May.10-16 > General Lyautey launches converging offensives from eastern and western Morocco - France has secured the Maghrib across all of northwest Africa
==Jun.10-Aug.20 > French forces largely conquer the Zaer region east of Casablanca - they suffer a severe defeat in the area on Nov.13, but otherwise the French conquest of Morocco is virtually complete


 
Sources include:
Rene Albrecht-Carrie.  A Diplomatic History of  Europe Since the Congress of Vienna, Revised Ed.  1973
Eugene N. Anderson.  The First Moroccan Crisis  1904-1906.  1930/1966
Sidney B. Fay.  The Origins of the World War, Second Edition, Revised, 2 volumes.  1966
Robert K. Massie.  Dreadnought: Britain, Germany, and the Coming of the Great War.  1991 
Douglas Porch.  The Conquest of Morocco.  1983
A. J. P. Taylor .  The Struggle for Mastery in Europe  1848-1918.  1954

Drawing of Delcassé from France Diplomatie

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