.
 
Nikolay Muravyev
 .
(1) Background, to January 1904


17th CENTURY

Russia (Siberia).
==1632.------ > Penetrating deep into eastern Siberia, the Russians establish Yakutsk - ~they soon hear reports of a grain-producing river valley to the south

Manchuria.Russia (Siberia).
==1643.Dec.-1645.spring > The first Cossack party penetrates southward into the Amur River basin, terrorizing the local residents 
==1649-1653 > Brutal Russian attempts to conquer and colonize the Amur region 
==1652-1658 > Chinese forces wipe out the Russian colonies on the Amur 
==1672 > The Russians renew their penetration of the Amur region 
==1686 > A powerful Chinese force destroys the Russian fort at Albazin 
==1689.Aug.27 > The Treaty of Nerchinsk: the Manchus force the Russians to withdraw north into Siberia, away from the Amur River 


1840's to 1850's

Manchuria.Russia (Siberia).
==1843.------ > Middendorf explores the length of the Amur, and reports to St. Petersburg that the river is undefended 
==1850.summer > After explorations the previous year, Nevelskoy establishes a fort at Nikolayevsk and claims the mouth of the Amur for Russia 
==1854.May.13-summer > Nikolay Muravyev, Governor of Eastern Siberia, leads a military force down the Amur and repels British and French attacks on the river’s mouth to the summer of 1855, securing the area for Russia
==1858.May.16 > Muravyev compels the Chinese to sign the Treaty of Aigun: the Siberian-Manchurian border is set on the Amur


1860's to early 1890's

Manchuria.Russia (Siberia).Korea.
==1860.Nov.14 > The Treaty of Peking: the Chinese confirm the Amur as Manchuria’s border and cede the region east of the Usuri River - Russia expands to the border of Korea

Russia (Siberia).
==1860.------ > The city of Vladivostok is founded

Japan.
==1868.------ > The Meiji Restoration: the start of the rise of Japan

Korea.Japan.
==1875.Sep.20 > Koreans fire on the Japanese naval vessel Un’yo, in the first clash between the two countries in modern times - ~tough Japanese response 
==1876.Feb.26 > The Treaty of Kangwha: Japan coerces Korea into granting trading concessions - the Japanese penetration of Korea begins

Japan.
==1880.------ > The Black Ocean (Genyosha) Society is established to encourage Japanese expansion

Korea.China.
==1882.Jul-1886.summer > Bitter factional struggles in Korea, exacerbated by Japanese, Chinese, and Russian interference - China establishes dominance 

Russia (Siberia).
==1891.May.19 > Russia officially begins construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad 


1894

Korea.Japan.China.
==Jun.--- > China and Japan both intervene in response to revolts in Korea 
==Jul.23 > A Japanese coup ousts the pro-Chinese faction in Seoul
==Aug.1-1895.spring > The Sino-Japanese War: from Sep. to Feb. the Japanese win a series of easy victories over Chinese land and naval forces, but fail in their attempts to control the Korean Court
==Nov.21 > Japanese forces under Oyama storm Port Arthur


1895

Korea.Japan.China.
==Apr.17 > The Treaty of Shimonoseki: among other concessions, China drops its claims to Korea, and cedes the Liaotung Peninsula to Japan

Korea.Japan.Europe.
==Apr.23 > The Triple Intervention: Russia, Germany and France ‘advise’ Japan to disgorge Liaotung - ~Japanese influence over Korea weakens 
==May.10 > The revised Treaty of Shimonoseki is ratified, without Japanese control of the Liaotung Peninsula - angry Japanese public reaction 

Korea.Japan.
==Oct.08 > Acting on his own authority, the Japanese Minister to Korea launches a coup in Seoul, and murders the Korean Queen

China.Russia.
==Dec.--- > The Russo-Chinese Bank is established


1896

Korea.Japan.Russia.
==Feb.10 > The Korean King flees to the Russian legation; pro-Japanese ministers are executed - Russia dominates Korea to 1898

China.Manchuria.Russia.
==May.22 > A secret Chinese-Russian alliance is signed, granting Russia the right to build the Chinese Eastern Railroad through Manchuria

Korea.Russia.
==May.--- > Korea unsuccessfully asks to become a Russian protectorate

Korea.Japan.Russia.
==Jun.--- > Lobanov-Yamagata Convention: Russia and Japan attempt to organize joint dominance of Korea


1897

Manchuria.Russia.
Russia seizes Port Arthur and the Liaotung Peninsula:
==Dec.03 > Germany seizes Kiao-Chow in Shantung - ~Russia immediately seeks  ‘compensation’ 
==Dec.14 > Russia announces to Germany that it intends to seize Port Arthur 
1898
==Mar.27 > China grants Russia a 25-year lease on the Liaotung Peninsula and a concession to build a South Manchurian Railroad  (or Mar.15)

Manchuria.Russia.
==1897 > The adventurer Bezobrazov acquires an interest in a immense timber concession on the Yalu, and begins influencing the Czar to adopt a bolder policy in Manchuria 

Korea.Russia.
==1897 > Russians are training Korean troops and directing Korean customs - the Russo-Korean Bank is established 


1898

Korea.Japan.Russia.
Apr.13 > The Rosen-Nissi Convention: Russia yields its dominant position in Korea to Japan 

Manchuria.Russia.
==1898 > Russia begins work on the Chinese Eastern Railroad in northern Manchuria


1899

China.Manchuria.Russia.
Apr.--- > Britain recognizes all of China north of the wall as being within the Russian sphere of influence

China.United States.
Sep.--- > US Secretary of State Hay announces the Open Door Policy, which helps to prevent an open partition of China


1900

Manchuria.Russia.
The Boxer Rebellion and the seizure of Manchuria:
==spring-summer > The height of the anti-foreign Boxer Rebellion in China 
==Jul.09 > Russian forces enter Manchuria
==Jul.14 > Chinese troops and Boxer rebels attack Russian troops and rail facilities, provoking a brutal Russian response
==Sep-Dec > Russia occupies all of Manchuria


1901

China.Manchuria.Russia.International.
==early.1901 > Russia begins to try to force China into yielding control of Manchuria - very strong opposition from Japan, Britain, and America

China.International.
==Sep.07 > The powers impose the punitive Boxer Protocol on China 

Russia (Siberia).
==Oct.21 > The Trans-Siberian Railroad is complete, except for the Lake Baikal gap 

Japan.Russia.
==1901 > The ultranationalist Black Dragon Society - with links to the Japanese government, military, and industrialists - is formed to prepare for a war with Russia 


1902

Japan.Britain.
==Jan.30 > The Anglo-Japanese alliance

Manchuria.Russia.
==Apr.08 > Russia recognizes Chinese sovereignty over Manchuria and agrees to a phased troop withdrawal to be completed in eighteen months - ~the withdrawal stalls by late 1902

Russia (Naval).
==late.summer > Russia begins to reinforce its Far Eastern fleet

Japan (Naval).
==1902 > Japan’s naval expansion program is complete 


1903

Manchuria.Russia.
==Feb.--- > In Manchuria, the Russians open the Chinese Eastern Railway to regular traffic

Japan.Russia.
==Apr.08 > Public protests in Japan over Russia’s failure to evacuate Manchuria 

Manchuria.Russia.
==May.15 > The Czar suddenly decides on an aggressive policy in Manchuria 

Japan.Russia.
==May.29 > A secret meeting of influential Japanese officers endorses a war with Russia

Korea.Russia.
==May.--- > Bezobrazov’s Yalu Timber Company begins operation, giving Russia a pretext to deploy troops on the Korean border 

Japan.Russia.
==Jun.23 > A Japanese Imperial Conference decides to take a hard line on Russia 
==Jul.28  > The Japanese government requests talks with Russia; on Aug.12, it presents a draft treaty - Russia fails to respond until Oct.


Eugene Ivanovitch Alexeiev

Manchuria.Russia.
==Aug.13 > The Czar abruptly appoints Alexeiev as Far Eastern Viceroy, with authority over Manchuria
==Sep.12 > Russia forms a Far Eastern Committee, chaired by the aggressive Bezobrazov 
==early.Oct > Russia reinforces its units in Manchuria 

Japan.Russia.
==Oct.03 > Russia makes an inadequate reply to Japan - desultory negotiations to Feb.1905 
==Oct.12 > Kodama is named Vice Chief of Staff - ~Japan begins planning for war

Manchuria.Russia.
==Oct.23 > War Minister Kuropatkin urgently recommends that Russia evacuate southern Manchuria - the Czar ignores him 

Japan (Naval).
==Oct.--- > Admiral Togo is appointed commander of the Standing Squadron 
==Dec.28 > The Japanese Standing Squadron is reorganized as the Combined Fleet 


January 1904

Japan.Russia.France.
==Jan.06 > France offers to mediate the Russian-Japanese dispute 

Japan.Russia.
==Jan.06 > Russia offers to accept limited Japanese influence in Korea

Manchuria.Russia.
==Jan.06 > Viceroy Alexeiev asks the Czar for permission to mobilize Russian forces in Manchuria and to move troops to the Korean border at the Yalu River 

Japan.Russia.
==Jan.12 > A Japanese Imperial Conference decides to make a final offer to Russia 
==Jan.13 > The fourth and final Japanese appeal proposes that Russia concedes influence in Korea while Japan concedes influence in Manchuria, with Russia respecting Chinese territorial integrity in Manchuria - the appeal is regarded by Russia as an ultimatum

Manchuria.Russia.
==Jan.13 > Japanese intelligence reports that attack plans have already been transmitted to the Russian Far East forces 

Korea.Russia.
==Jan.14 > The Czar orders that Russian forces not interfere with Japanese troops in southern Korea until they cross the 38th parallel 

Japan (Naval).
==Jan.20 > The Japanese fleet is put on alert 

Korea.
==Jan.21 > Korea officially proclaims its neutrality 

Russia (Siberia).
==Jan.end > Ferries are unable to cross freezing Lake Baikal - Russian troops bound for Manchuria are compelled to march over the ice on the lake

Russia.
==Jan.31 > ~Interior Minister Plehve allegedly tells General Kuropatkin that Russia needs “a small, victorious war” to ward off revolution… but the statement is probably apocryphal

  
The Russian Navy socks the Japanese Fleet in the kisser.
One of many over-confident pre-war Russian propaganda cartoons.


 

Russo-Japanese War Introduction   ///   (2) February-April 1904

(3) May-December 1904   ///   (4) January-November 1905

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